Nigeria. The liquefied natural gas project 96104036 Adepetun, S. and Segun, K. Energy Policy, Jun. 1996, 24, (6), 593-596. After a few false drawns, the Nigerian Liquefied Natural Gas Project is today moving from concept to reality having overcome the preliminary steps of gas reserve estimation, preliminary engineering and demand forecasting. The article provides a concise description of the project structure detailing the essential integrated elements of the chain, the sustenance of the project and the defined commercial arrangements for its finance and marketing. It also takes a look at the potential benefits the success of the project holds for Nigeria. 96104039 Technical report The Australian Gas J., Jun. 1996, 60, (3), 15-16. Technical issues related to open access in transmission and distribution systems have generally not received adequate industry focus in the gas reform activity to date. Issues covering legislative, commercial, regulatory, transition and other matters have enjoyed the centre stage position. This Technical Report looks at the issues being addressed as part of the CoAG Gas Reform process in Australia. 96lQ4040 United Nations natural gas research centre Cornot-Gandolphe, S. and Guerrini, Y. GAZ d’aujourd’hui, Jun. 1996, 120, (6), 267-270. (In French) As part of a programme to encourage technical cooperation between the member states of the UN Economic Commission for Europe which aims to develop cooperation between the countries of Eastern and Western Europe in the gas industry, a natural gas research centre has just been built under the aeeis of the United Nations. The article exulains the obiectives and acti&s of this new centre as well as the role of its membets Usina the ATG minitel service 96104841 Le Bras, C. GAZ d&jourd’hui, Jun. 1996, 120, (6), 281-284. (In French) The videotex service of the French gas association on the French ‘minitel’ system was devised by the ‘communications and services’ working party of the ATG training and information committee. In this article, the leader of the working party gives a few handy hints about the service it designed and put into action in conjunction with the Societe auxiliaire de I’industrie gaziere.
Tanaka, S. et al., (Assigned to) Hitachi Ltd; Babcock Hitachi KK, JAP. Pat. JP.O7,278,573, Oct. 1995. The apparatus includes a gasifier with a heat recovery device with innercooling structures on its metallic wall of the inlet section, holes on the inner walls for ejecting gases to strip the deposits and generate cyclone based on the flow rate, nozzles for injection of coolin .p medium to lower the temperature of the fuel gases produced in the gast rcatton chamber.
Gaseous fuels (derived
Coal gasification using the ZnO/Zn redox system 96194848 Tsuji, M. er al., Energy Fuels, 1996, 10, (1) 225-228. A two-step thermochemical process is described for converting coal to high-quality synthesis gas. Coal gasifier with melting slag discharging 96104849 Takahashi, Y. et al., (Assigned to) Mitsubishi HeaLy Ind. Ltd., JAP. Pat. JP.O8,54,106, Feb. 19%. _ The gasifier consists of a combustor for melting coal ashes to be discharged, a reductor for coal gasification, and a burner for combustor and reductor, and has downward gradually increased cross-section area. Coal seam methane in Australia: An overview 96104850 AGA Research Paper No.2, The Australian Gas Association, Canberra, ACT.2601, Australia, Apr. 1996. The paper shows that coal seam methane is a potentially valuable gas resource for Australia with total resource estimates ranging as high as 532,000 PJ. Combined power generation plant with coal 96104051 gasification Uchida. S. (Assigned to) Mifsubishi Heave Ind. Ltd.. JAP. Pat. JP.O7,247,807, Sep. 11995. The system of coal gasification in the plant, includes a coal oxidation, furnace for generating high-temperature gases by charging coal char, pressurized air, steam. and CaS. a coal gasification furnace for generating coal gas by charging the produced higKtemperature gas, pressirized ai?, and coal, a desulphurization furnace for fixing and desulphurizing by charging the produced coal gas and limestone to convert S-containing compounds into CaS. 96tO4852 A comparison of pyrolysis products with models for natural gas generation Andresen, B. er al., Chem. Geol., 1995, 126, (3) 261-280. Hydrous pyrolysis, using progressive heating from 150 to 365”C, is used to study the generation and isotopic composition of hydrocarbon gases and carbon dioxide. 96104853 Determination of the coefficients of losses and influx of air during underoround combustion and gasification of coal IZV. Vyssh. (ichebn. Zal’ed.. Gorn. Z/I., 1995, (7) Yanchenko, G. A. 10-17. (In Russian) Describes how during underground gasification and combustion of coal, air is pumped into a coal bed, and combustion gases and gasification products are recovered. The increased pressure in an air delivery canal and the underpressure (suction) in a product recovery canal result in air losses and influxes, respectively, due to natural permeability of the country rocks. The air losses and influxes are calculated.
Biological treatment of coals for their conversion 96104843 to methane Shumkov, S. and Terehova, S. Coal Sci. Technol., 1995, 24, (2) 1757-1760. The anaerobic treatment of coals to yield CH, was strongly correlated with coal rank.
A direct reduction process by shaft furnace with 96104654 gasification of coal and enriched oxygen Yang, S. et al., Gangtie, 1995, 30, (4), 9-11. (In Chinese) Describes a process for manufacture of direct reduced iron in a shaft furnace, which consists of gasification of coal for fuel and provision of moisture-added O-enriched air for the hot blast.
96104044 Calculation and exergy analysis of process schemes for coal gasification to produce coke, methanol, energy and heat accompanied by a catalytic liquid phase purification of gases and toxic components Gudkov, A. V. et al., Coal Ser. Technol., 1995, 24, (I), 579-582.
The effect of mineral matter and pyrolysis condi96104855 tions on the gasification of Greek lignite by carbon dioxide Samaras, P. et al., Fuel, Jul. 1996, 75, (9). 1108-1114. Coal specimens with different mineral matter contents were produced from Greek lignite using various acid treatment conditions. Ash content and chemical composition of mineral matter depended on the type of acid used and the sequence of treatment stages. Gasification rates of coals were investigatedby thermogravimetric analysis in a carbon dioxide atmosphere in the temoerature range 700-900°C. The combined effects of inorganic constituents and carboiization conditions such as heating rate and-final temperature were determined. Gasification rates of chars with high ash content were higher than those of similarly prepared char with low ash content, due to the presence of catalytically active inorganic constituents.
Catalytic reaction of CO, with CH, for making 96104845 syngas Li, W. Y. et al., Coal Sci. Technol., 1995, 1, 727-730. The paper discusses methane reforming with CO, over Ni catalysts to synthesis gas of lower ratio of H&O in a fixed bed reactor. Characteristics of entrained flow coal gasification 96104846 in a drop tube reactor Lee, J. G. et al., Fuel, Jul. 1996, 75, (9) 1035-1042. The effects of reaction temperature, oxygen/coal and steam/coal ratios and residence time on coal gasification performance in entrained flow were determined by means of a drop tube reactor (0.05 m.i.d. X 1.0 m high). The HJCO molar ratio decreases with increasing reaction temperature and the H,+CO content of the oroduct eas exhibit a maximum around the ash fusion temoerature. With incrcasine 0, content. carbon conversion increases and the rate of production 07 H,‘and CO increases initially to a maximum value. The optimum O,/coal ratio is in the range 0.6-0.9 for different coals. 96104847 Coal as an alternative source for gas production Stasiak, T. Gospod. Paliwami Energ., 1996, 44, (1). 7-10. (In Polish) Discusses coal gasification processes.
Gasification - An alternative to natural gas 96104856 Van Liere, J. and Van der Burgt, M. Chem. Eng. (Rugby, UK), 1996, (603) 15-18. Discusses the gasification technology for manufacture of synthesis gas and fuel gases from coal and petroleum residues, especially those technologies incorporating air separation and use of 0, Instead of air. 96104057 Gasification of coke in steam Golovina, E. S. ef al., Teploenergerika (Moscow), 1995, (8). 56-61. (In Russian) Discusses the gasification of brown coal coke and coke at 900-1350 K and steam concentration lo-27%. Equilibrium constants, product yields, and reaction kinetics are determined.
Fuel and Energy