Emissions of nitrogen oxides of coal with gas or fuel oil
Kotler, V. R. 7cploer1ergzrika (Moscow,), 199h, (5). 47-52. (In Russian) This article concludes, based on analysis of results of industrial test runs of hoilet- firing with pulverized coal and a supplemental fuel (residual fuel oil or natural gas), that the current method for the of NO, concentration in flue gases should he changed. Formulas are derived to calculate NO, concentrations for use of either supplemental fuel. 97101175
of an eastern
Thorna\. K. P. and Harnrherger. P. M.. F& Sci. Techrrol. I~II.. 1496, 14. (0). 1253-1280. Prc\nt\ an evaluation of eastern shale oil (ESO) residue as an asphalt additive to reduce oxidative age-hardening and moisture susceptibility. The ES0 residue was blended with three different petroleum-derived asphalts AAD-I, AAK-I, and AAM-I that are known to he very susceptible to oxidatlve ageing. Rheological and IR analyses of the unaged and aged asphalts and the hlends were then conducted to evaluate oxidative agehardening. In addition, the petroleum-derived asphalts and the blends were coated onto three different aggregates, Lithonia granite, a low-absorption limestone, and a silicious Gulf Coast gravel, and compacted into briquettes. Successive freeze-thaw cycling was then conducted to evaluate the moisture \usceptihility of the prepared briquettes. The rheology analyses of the unaged petroleum-derived asphalts and their respectively hlends indicate that the sample\ satisfy the rutting requirement. Thus, the trend was \uhstantiatcd.
97101176 ing fluidized
Experimental study on sulfur bed combustion of oil shale
Wang, G. et al. Rarrlinr~ Hllaz~re Xoehoo, 1996. 24. (4), 315-322. (In Chinese) Presents the results of a study into the factors affecting SO? emission’during fluidired bed combustion of oiJ shale, such as bed temperature, oil shale particle sizes, water content in oil shale, CaiS molar ratio and ash/oil shale wetght ratio. The results show that in the experimental range the primary and \ccondary extent of influence SO: emission by the above factors is in the f~,llowing order of sequence: water content in oil shale > CaiS molar ratio > hed temperature > oil shale size.
FGD design with usable byproducts
tllison. W. F,4Ac‘T (.4/n. Sot. Mcclr. EQ.), 1995, 20 (Proceedings of the IY9.5 International Joint Power Generation Conference, 1995, I), 29-36. This article concerns the availability of flue gas cleaning processes to achieve simultaneou\ SOz/NO, removal cost-effectively. Topics discussed include: long-term energy.development; advancement of high-S-fuel energy credo: fundamental hasts to achieve dual objectives of simultaneous pollutant removal and full use of waste production (simultaneous SO:; NO, removal in presence of adequate SO7 molarity. accommodation by a usahlc. sulfurous hy-product yield of NO, reaction product); key alternative flue gas desulfurization technologies commercially applicable to S02/N0, rem~,val (naturaliinhihited oxidation wet lime/limestone, technique and cost-effectiveness in NO,. removal, lime, limestone, Na-based dual alkali. hy-product use, dry alkali sorption, hybrid alkali formulation for simultaneous S02/N0,. removal, waste product idiosyncrasies, waste management, NH, reagent-hased scrubbing, wet and dry NH3, RAM technology); and optimum basis for long-term primary energy policy world-wide.
in IGCC gasifiers
Norman, J. S. (‘I ctl. Inst. Energv’s Int. Conf. Comhusr Emiss. Control, Proc. Inst. Etrer~. Cortf., 2n~l, 1995, 109-l 18. Nitrogen species released during gasification processes can result in the formation of NH? and HCN. If fed directly to the gas turbine in a combined-cycle process, a proportion of this can lead to NO, formation. Detailed krnetic calculations investigating the relationship between NH?, HCN. and NO were performed. Two different nitrogen mechanisms were investigated hoth of which predicted NH2 and HCN formation from NO. The applicability of these mechanisms to the relatively low temperature of the gasifier was discussed and methods of controlling NH? addressed.
for COP disposal
Kajishima, T. er crl. Emzrgy, FehiMarch 1997, 22, (2/3), 2.57-262. Discloses details of the GLAD (Gas-Lift Advanced Dissolution) system for CO? release into deep seawater. The feasibility of this method has been examined by the numerical simulation of gas-liquid, two-phase flow with a CO? dissolution model. The performance and cost of the GLAD system are discussed based on a model plant.
Nielsen. P. E. H. and Sigurdardottir. I. D. Prtrc.. ,4rrntr. lnf. /‘r~/thur;ylz C‘oul CO,lf., 1995, 12. 1074-1079. Discusses the development of a sandwich aorhent for deep sulfur removal in coal gases. The sorbent is comprised of a combination of a SnO,-based rorhent and a ZnO-based sorhent. With this sorhent a sulfur removal down to a few ppm of H,S can he achieved at temperatures around 4OO‘C. The SnOz acts as a hulk desulfurization agent whereah the ZnO acts as a fine desulfurization agent. The system has been tested using simulated coal gases. During regeneration, all sulfur was recovered.
Hot gas cleanup separating hard and brown coal fly at temperatures up to 850°C with rigid ceramic barrier
Berbner. S. Proc. Annu. Inr. Pittshqh Cml Conl:, 1495, 12, 391-400. This article presents a study into hot gas filtratmn, the regeneration of rigid ceramic barrier filters. and particle properties.
Hot gas desulfurization in gasifier-exit ducts
Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M. U.S. US 5, 53X. 703 (Cl. 423-230; BOlDS3i 52), 23 Jul 1996, US Appl. 145, 440. 29 Ott lYY3. Y pp. Cont. of U.S. Ser. No. 145. 440. ahandoned. This study details a method which involves the InJection of zinc or zinc oxide precursors in gas, liquid, or fine powder form into the hot duct work of a coal gasifier exit after fly ash was removed to react with H2S gas. In addition to ZnO sulfidation. a portion of the Zn-based reagents converted to the vapour state in the reducing fuel gas environment, reacts with H2S and forms fine ZnS particles that arc then collected on a high efficiency, high temperature filter. Periodically, the filter i> hackflushed, and spent sorhent is collected in a hopper. removed for regeneration, and returned to the injection system.
Hot gas desulfurization
Campbell. W. M. and Henningsen, G. B. Proc. Atrnrl. Conf.. 1995, 12. 1059-10~4. Details a hot gas desulfurization system for the removal a selective sorhent and the regeneration of that sorhent rich tail gas.
Hydrate of CO2
of HIS and CO> on to produce an SOL-
in the sub-seabed
Koide, H. er ul. Errergy, Febi’March 1907, 22, (2.13). 27Y-283. Sediments under the deep sea floor are usually cold hecause the deep oceanic water i\ cold. Carhod dioxide hydrate forms in the sediments in areas of the sea floor deeper than 300 m. The formation of carbon dioxide hydrate in sediment pores almost completely prevents the escape of carbon dioxide.
97101186 Hydrogen transfer from Tetralin and Decalin to high-temperature coal tars. Relation with carbon deposit formation Pajak, J. er al. Fuel Process. Technol.. lY9h, 48. (I), 73-81. Presents a study of pyrolysis of a coal charge containing various quantitiea of water in a two-stage reactor. The rate of formation of solid carbon deposits and some properties of high-temperature tars were investigated. These tars differ in elemental composition and hexane soluhility. Hydrogen acceptor abilities were evaluated. The report concludes that the rate of carbon deposit formation and hydrogen acceptor abilities of tars are different for various quantities of water in the starting coal charge. The relation between the hydrogen transfer properties of tars expressed as the ratio of Decalin hydrogen transfer (DHT) to Tetralin H transfer (THT) and the rate of carbon deposit formation indicates the importance of hydrogen transfer during secondary pyrolysis.
Investigations on the processing of oil vacuum residue and its mixtures with coal and coal tars. Part 2. Hydrogenative upgrading of the liquid products
Tokarska, A. Fuel, 1996, 75, (lo), 1206-1212. This work presents an investigation into hydrogenative upgrading of the liquids resulting from the initial processing of petroleum vacuum residues and their mixtures with coal and coal tars. Physical and chemical characteristics of the products obtained were determined, and the possibility of their use as the source of engine fuels is discussed. The HNMR spectrometry has been found capable of characterizing the structural changes accompanying the process of hydrogenative upgrading.
cloths for bag filters
Okuda. T. and Matsushita, M. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 08, 209, 489 [96, 209,489] (Cl. DO3DlS/l2), 13 Aug 1996, Appl. 95117, 3Y4, 6 Feb 1995, 4 pp (In Japanese). The cloths described are composed of glass long fihres with a C-glass composition. The fihres used have a nominal diameter 57 ,jm. The bag filters are used for collecting carbon black product and dust from coalfueled boilers and municipal refuse incinerators, and so on.
Legal of wastes
and economic in collieries
Wilke, F. L. Glueckauf, 1996, 132. (7). 365-371. (In German) In this report critical discussion of the regulations on utilization and disposal of wastes in collieries. Consideration is given to legal and economic aspects.
Fuel and Energy Abstracts