03 Gaseous fuels (derived gaseous fuels) balance. Thus, during the past 20 years, natural gas recorded growth rate among fossil fuels, and its share in the energy gradually risen from 18.9% in 1975 to 23.1% in 1995.
the highest market has
Transformations in the world gas industry 98iO3730 Maisonnier, G. Gaz d’Aujourd’hui, 1997, 121, (5), 278-285. The three main trends that shape the world gas industry today are mergers, privatizations and deregulation: mergers in North America that have lead to the constitution of new ‘BTU giants’; privatizations not only in Latin America but also in Central Europe, opening the way to new alliances; and the deregulation in process within the European Union. At a world-wide level, the gas industry, influenced by political, legislative and administrative events has experienced many dramatic transformations. A comparison between these three relatively independent regions (North America, Latin America and Europe) in terms of gas supply might prove very instructive in efforts to forecast the future or maybe to avoid mistakes of the past.
Derived Gaseous Fuels Activity of catalyst BT-1 under conditions of liquidphase methanol synthesis
Nowicki, L. et al. Przem. Chem., 1997, 76, (ll), 476-478. (In Polish) Under simulated industrial conditions in a stirred autoclave, the kinetics of the methanol synthesis from synthesis gas an the BT-1 catalyst (copperzinc-manganese-aluminium) suspended in fatty alcohols were studied. BT1 activity was found to be similar to that of other copper catalysts.
Apparatus for production of generator gas from waste wood or plant raw materials
Tyumenskij Gosudarstvennyj Universitet Russ. RU 2,081,894 (Cl. ClOJ3/ 20), 20 Jun 1997, Appl. 93,026,922, 26 May 1993. (In Russian). From lzobreteniya 1997, (17), 116. gal03733
Atmospheric CFB gasification-the
Greve plant and
beyond Rensfelt, E. K. W. Biomass GasifPyrolysis,[Conf.], 1997, 139-159. Edited bv Kaltschmitt. M. and Bridmater, A. V.. CPL Press, Newbury, UK. Iicreasing inteiest has been Goted for the use of biomass and waste as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. When integrated with a suitable recycling programme, these fuels can be employed without contributing to the ‘greenhouse effect’ as they are ‘carbon-neutral’. Both in the pulp industry and the cement industry, circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns. A demonstration plant in Greve-in-Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW (thermal) RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in a purposely designed steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification-gas cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. The commercialization strategy first aims to demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. In the UK and Brazil, several demonstration projects are already underway.
Biomass gasification with steam and oxygen mix90lQ3734 tures at pilot scale and with catalytic gas upgrading. Part I: performance of the gasifier Aznar, M. P. et al. Dev. Thermochem. Biomass Convers., 1997, 2, 11941208. Edited by Bridgwater, A. V. and Boocock, D. G. B., Blackie, London, UK. The gasification of biomass with steam-O2 mixtures is studied at small pilot plant scale (lo-20 kg/h). A turbulent fluidized bed gasifier with inner diameter 15 cm and height 3.3 m is used for the experiments. The pilot plant has a downstream slip flow to study the catalytic upgrading of the raw gas. A guard bed with dolomite and a catalytic bed with a steam reforming catalyst are used and, to date, eight different commercial catalysts have been tested.
Biomass gasification: produced gas upgrading by in-bed use of dolomite
Olivares, A. er al. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 1997, 36, (12), 5220-5226. In the bed of a fluidized bed-type biomass gasifier, the use of some calcined dolomite (CaO.MgO) produces cleaner raw gas than when only silica sand is used as the fluidizing medium. In-bed dolomite changes the product distribution at the gasifier exit because of in-situ catalytic reactions promoted by the calcined dolomite. Gasifying with steam-O2 mixtures, causes the tar content in the exit gas to decrease from 12 to 2-3 g tar/m3, the H2 content to increase from 25-28 to 43 vol%, and the CO content to decrease from 45 to 27 ~01% when the gas and char yields, heating value of the gas and other main variables also undergo important changes because of the in-bed dolomite. A small pilot plant scale in a 15-cm inner diameter atmosphere and bubbling fluidized bed gasifier fed by 10 kg biomass/h was
Fuel and Energy Abstracts
implemented in the present work. Dolomite was continuously fed to the gasifier, mixed with the biomass in amounts of 2-3 wt% of the total mass flow feed. A 10 wt% quantity of calcined dolomite in the gasifier bed was enough to significantly improve the product distribution and gas quality.
The BIOSYN waste biomass gasification: environmental performances
Abatzoglou, N. et al. Biomoss Gasif Pyrolysis, (Conf.], 1997, 259-268. Edited by Kaltschmitt, M. and Bridgwater, A. V., CPL Press, Newbury, UK. An extensive R&D programme in Canada over the past three years has focused on the design and scale-up of a wet scrubbing system coupled to the BIOSYN gasification technology. In order to prove the flexibility of the technology and the efficiency of the gas conditioning step, various feedstocks were tested. Important factors in the successful application of this technology as an important element of any integrated solid waste management strategy are its environmental performances and social acceptability. Work on the environmental performances of the wet scrubbing system is presented and a method for assessing the social acceptability of the technology at the inception of the implementation is proposed. A particular emphasis has been put on the distribution of metals in the output streams of the gasification system. Despite a relatively rich literature on particles, acid gases and VOCs emissions contained in producer gas, very few works have focused on cation and anion distribution in the output streams. Forthcoming regulations will impose stricter maximum allowable heavy metals emissions for thermal treatment units. In this work, feedstock spiked with heavy metals has been used to quantify the behaviour of the metals, as well as the performance of the newly designed wet scrubbing module. Distribution of metals in the fluid bed sand, ashes, scrubbing water and ‘clean’ cold producer gas have been measured and compared with existing data and regulations. Different analysis techniques are discussed regarding their efficiency as well as their limitations.
98lo3737 Catalytic hot gas conditioning of biomass derived product gas
Paisley, M. A. Dev. Thermochem. Biomass Convers., 1997, 2, 1209-1223. Edited by Bridgwater, A. V. and Boocock, D. G. B., Blackie, London, UK. The efficient and economical production of a renewable source of a clean gaseous fuel suitable for power generation or synthesis gas (syngas) applications is possible with biomass gasification. An important side benefit of the use of biomass is the effective minimization of the primary greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, by providing a means to close-loop the CO2 cycle. However, high molecular weight hydrocarbon constituents (tar) in the product gas from gasification can complicate the downstream uses of the gas. Both the development of a low cost, disposable catalyst system that can eliminate these heavy hydrocarbons from the gas and the use of the catalyst in conjunction with the Battelle high-throughput gasification process for power generation and synthesis applications are discussed in this work.
Chemical aspects of manufacture of reducing 98193738 gases and synthesis gases during dry quenching of coke Zubilin, I. G. Woks Khim., 1997, (12)., 19-21. (In Russian) The chemical aspects manufacturing reducing gases and synthesis during dry quenching of coke are investigated.
Co-gasification of biomass and coal in a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier
Andries, J. el al. Biomass Gusif. Pyrolysis, [Conf.], 1997, 172-181. Edited by Kaltschmitt, M. and Bridgwater, A. V., CPL Press, Newbury, UK. A three-year multinational project, partly funded by the EU as part of their JOULE programme, will include experimental and theoretical research on the co-gasification of biomass and coal in a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier. Delft University of Technology will experimentally determine the influence of feedstock and operating conditions on the gasifier’s characteristics. Pelletized straw and Miscanthus will be used as biomass feedstock. The installation used to conduct these experiments has a maximum thermal capacity of 1.5 MW,,, and will operate at pressures up to 10 bar and temperatures of 900°C. A description of the project objectives, the test rig to be used, the time schedule of the project and results obtained during the first part are presented and analysed.
CO*-removed coal gasification generation system
Abe, T. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 09,279,163 [97,279,163] (Cl. ClOJ3/ 46), 28 Ott 1997, Appl. 96/89,700, 11 Apr 1996, 3 pp. (In Japanese) Using high-temperature coal gasification gas generated from a gasifier for power generation, the system comprises passing the coal gasification gas from the gasifier through a wet-type scrubber for HCI removal from the gas, feeding the gas to a shift converter for converting CO of the gas to CO2 with steam supply and passing the gasification gas through a COZ-removal apparatus.
Coal combustion and gasification in a compartmented, fluidlzed-bed coal gasifier
Yan, H. et al. Symp. (hr.) Cornbust., [Proc.], 1996, 26, (2), 3261-3267. An investigation of a conceptual compartmented, fluidized-bed coal gasifier (CFBCG) which separates coal combustion from gasification for synthesis gas production took place in a small pilot plant. The investigation involved