02922 Pyrolysis of coal and brown coal in a reactor with a circulating fluidized bed

02922 Pyrolysis of coal and brown coal in a reactor with a circulating fluidized bed

01 So/id fuels (preparation) Organic geochemical characteristics of Jurassic 99102920 coal in Santanghu Basin of Xinjiang, China Huo, Y. et al. Jian...

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So/id fuels (preparation)

Organic geochemical characteristics of Jurassic 99102920 coal in Santanghu Basin of Xinjiang, China Huo, Y. et al. Jianghan Shiyou Xueyuan Xuehao, 1998, 20, (l), 32-36. (In Chinese) The paper studies the organic geochemical characteristics of Jurassic coal in Santanghu Basin of Xinjiang. The high-content hydrocarbon (30-50%) and high ratio (0.6-3.0) of saturated hydrocarbon and aromatic hydrocarbon in the extracts from Jurassic coal in Santanghu Basin of Xinjiang were influenced by sporinite and cutinite (content 3.0-6.0%). 99102921 Petrology of the Cenozoic basalts from eastern Kazakhstan Uslugin, M. 0. et al. Geol. Ku.?., 1997, (5), 57-67. (In Russian) The petrology of the Cenozoic basalt trap formations in the Kenderlyk depression and in the Narym-Bulditarma area is examined in this article. A geological-geophysical study has confirmed the pyrometamorphic nature of the basalts. Migration of matter during the pyrometamorphic processes is evaluated. Zones of burnt rock resulting from subsurface fires have been discovered. The magmatic field above the burnt-rock zones is attributed to the separating out of iron minerals and a model for the development of such zones is proposed. Based on this model the autodegassing of kerogenand coal-bearing rocks was studied in the Kenderlyk depression. Pyrolysis of coal and brown coal in a reactor with a 99102922 circulating fluidized bed Czaplicki, A. and Kubica, K. Karbo-Energochem:Ekof., 1997, 42, (12), 385-389. (In Polish) Using coal from the Wieczorek coal mine in Upper Silesia (Poland) and brow> coal from the Belchatow coal mine pyrolysis tests were carried out in a reactor with a circulating fluidized bed. The properties of the coals and products of their pyrolysis were estimated. The influence of coal quality, the addition of sulfur acceptor and water steam into the process, as well as the process parameters on the yield and quality of pyrolysis products were examined. Energy, mass and element balances of pyrolysis carried out in a pilot scale were elaborated. Queensland exploration and mining-a review of 99102923 economic indicators of current activity (1998 September quarter) Sandford, C. QGMJ, 1999, 100, (1167), 5-10. This article presents an analysis of exploration expenditure in Queensland, drawn from Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) and Department of Mines and Energy (DME) data. The article also discusses recent quarterly (1998 September quarter) and annual (12 months to September 1998) exploration trends for Queensland and the other States. An analysis of price trends over the 1998 September quarter as well as the outlook for 1999, based on information published by the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE) and AME Mineral Economics (AME), are also presented. Regional geology, depositional environment and 99/02924 maturity of organic matter of Early to Middle Jurassic coals, coals shales, shales and claystones from the Eastern Pontides, NE Turkey Mann, U. et al. Int. J. Coal Geol., 1998, 37, (3-4), 251-286. Microscopic, petrophysical and detailed organic geochemical methods were used to investigate Jurassic coals, coaly shales, shales and claystones from the Eastern Pontides in NE Turkey. The aims of the study were to determine the catagenetic stage of the samples, to reveal the composition of the organic matter and to discuss the depositional environment. Coal seams, ranging from a few centimetres to several decimetres and interspersed with shales, claystones and sandstones occur within the basal part, the Aggi Formation, as well as in the uppermost part, the Hamurkesen Formation, of the rift deposits. All coal seams investigated are at a catagenetic maturation stage. Most samples are impure humic coals with highly variable chemical compositions as indicated by the broad range of their hydrogen contents, partly attributed to variable contributions of algal material and partly due to bacterial reworking. 99102925 Study of the geological influencing factors on rock bursts Huwe, H.-W. Glueckauf-Forschungsh., 1998, 59, (3), 72-76. (In German) Factors affecting rock bust occurrence were investigated and were found to be, in addition to factors associated with pressure increase, the composition of the surrounding rock, its thickness and its distance to the coal seam. The Bochum, Dorsten and Horst strata were the subjects of this study. The strength and deformation properties of the surrounding strata were dependent on the stratigraphic position and on the depth of the overlying strata from which they originated. Differences in the physical characteristics were particularly obvious in the case of sandstones. Much of the sandstone in the Dorsten strata is comparable with rocks from areas which are prone to rock burst. Roof and floor strata were appropriate in the rock bursts investigated during the reporting period. Surrounding-rock requirements, as laid down by the rock burst guidelines, were generally met in areas which had a recognized risk of rock burst, especially the Bochum strata. In some road-type excavations in seams located in the Dorsten and Horst strata high levels of rock stress were identified, despite the fact that rock strata of an appropriate strength and thickness were either absent or only partially present. No signs of rock stress appeared in the subsequent coal faces.


Fuel and Energy Abstracts



Thermogravimetric behavior of some Turkish 99102926 lignites of different sizes Ozbas, K. E. et al. Fizykochem. Probl. Mineralurgii, 1998, 32, 149-156. An investigation of the thermogravimetric behaviour of Soma and Tuncbilek lignites of Turkey and the effect of different particle sizes on their thermal properties was conducted. Four different size fractions were obtained by crushing samples in a jaw crusher. Samples of approximately 10 mg were used, allowing non-isothermal thermogravimetric (TGIDTG) experiments to be carried out from the ambient temperature to 900°C in air. The heating rate of 10”C/min and the air flow rate of 5 ml/min were chosen and it was found that peak and burn-out temperatures decreased slightly with the particle size. The kinetic parameters of the samples were obtained from differential thermogravimetric data by using an Arrhenius type reaction model. TG/DTG thermograms of both samples showed two reaction regions at two different temperature ranges, the first region occurring as a result of the decomposition of the mineral matter in the samples. The Soma samples were found to have lower activation energies and it was also discovered that particle size had almost no effect on the activation energies in the major combustion region of both Iignites. Thermogravimetry emerged as a suitable method for characterizing the combustion of the samples.

99102927 X-ray diffraction patterns of coals of Guangxi Chen, R. et al. GuiIin Gongxueyuan Xuebao, 1998, 18, (l), 28-34. (In Chinese) A systematic analysis was carried out on the X-ray diffraction patterns of little metamorphosed, regionally metamorphosed, thermally metamorphosed and hydrothermally metamorphosed coals. For the (002) diffraction peak, the diffraction angle increases, but the half-height width and the spacing of the plane net of aromatic ring layer decrease with a gradual increase on coal rank. The (101) diffraction peak gradually appears and its half-width decreases as the coal rank increases. The third diffraction peak, appearing when 2a is about 8O”C, only exists in anthracite. The ordering degree of bituminous coal increases as the low-consistency organic compound in coal comes off. The ordering degree of anthracite is in direct proportion to the frequent and long-term hydrothermal process.


The behavior of alkali compounds in air and CO$ 99102928 Oz-blown coal conversion processes Nykanen, J. et al. High Temp. Gas Clean., [Pap. Int. Symp. Exhib. Gas Clean. High Temp.], 3, 1996, 706-717. Edited by Schmidt, E., Institut fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik und Mechanik der Universitaet Karlsruhe (TH), Karlsruhe, Germany The behaviour of alkali compounds in air- and C02/0z-blown coal conversion systems was studied using the HSC chemical equilibrium model. The major gaseous alkali compounds emitted from the studied combustion and gasification processes were found to be CII and OH-. The variety of the alkali compounds increased with decreasing air ratio, gas-phase alkali compound emissions were affected by both process temperature and pressure. By cooling the gases down to -6OO”C, the concentration of gaseous alkali compounds can be kept at the level of 100 ppb in all studied pressurized coal conversion processes. Chlorine is the most important chemical substance in the coal. The coal alkali content also affects the concentration of gaseous alkali compounds. The effect of sulfur is limited due to the introduction of CaCOa, added for sulfur removal. CaCOa plays a very important role in the behaviour of alkali compounds in combustion. Calcium increases the amount of gaseous alkali compounds by decreasing formation of easily-condensing alkali sulfates. Addition of limestone has no effect on alkali emissions for gasification. In conclusion the difference between air- and C02/0z-blown processes, with respect to alkali emissions, is small. Furthermore, the effect of COz:Oz ratio is negligible.

Bundles of pneumatic transport lines for pulverized 99102929 coal (to be injected into the blast furnace) Delebarre, A. et al. Powder Handl. Process., 1998, 10, (3), 245-248. By measuring solid concentrations and particle velocity in various bundles of pneumatic transport lines of pulverized coal it was shown that the difference in pressure of the bundles was given by a relation similar to that of the theorem of Bernoulli applied to the ‘fluid’ gas particle. The term of pressure loss was given by this law as a function of the length of the line and the friction coefficient of the ‘fluid’ gas-coal on the duct wall. The pressure drop of constrictions of the convergent-divergent and their pressure loss coefficient was provided as a function of their neck diameter. The aforementioned relation was applied to a bundle without constrictions and it was demonstrated that short transport lines were enriched in transport fluid compared to longer ones. This explains the differences in the concentration and velocity regime of the lines of the bundles.