388 R e v i e w s a n d abstracts
Section III, Arthroscopy of the Temporomandibular Joint, is the heart of the book. This section has the overriding strength of the book, a delicate balance of surgical pathology and arthroscopic surgical technics. Dr. Jeffrey Moses has a particularly strong, clearly illustrated chapter on an endaural arthroscopic approach. The pathogenic emphasis is enhanced with the four chapters in section IV, "Arthroscopic Pathology of the Temporomandibular Joint." This is an excellent primer or review for both surgeons and nonsurgeon practitioners involved with TM joint management. Section V, "Postoperative Management," presents a logical sequencing of chapters on postoperative management of surgical patients. This is followed by a chapter on complications. Although the last chapter on future directions, seems out of place in this section, the contents are interesting in the everchanging and rapidly developing techniques of TM joint arthroscopy. Five interesting and practical case reports conclude the text in section VI, "Case Reports of Arthroscopic Pathology." These surgical reports are an appreciated touch for practical application of principles set forth in the early parts of the book. The book has an excellent appendices section, with 11 subsections, which includes treatment forms, instructions, and other information that help standardize this evolving area. The index, occupying 71/2 pages, is definitive. This book is a cornucopia of information in an rapidly developing surgical area that has abounded with confusion and controversy. The editors and authors are commended for effecting a marriage between the logical basic scientific information and the useful surgical treatment modality of arthroscopy. Drs. Thomas and Bronstein, as authors and editors, have produced a book, laced with practical technical information, that provides logical clinical applications based on sound scientific data. R.D. Ailing and C.C. Allhzg
The Mount Sinai Medical Center Family Guide to Dental Health Jack Klatell, Andrew Kaplan, and Gray Williams, Jr. New York: MacMillan. 304 pages; $24.95
The book, edited by two dentists and a science editor, is a home reference volume designed for the lay public to provide information on all facets of dentistry from basic home dental care to advanced treatment modalities and procedures. Twenty-six dental health-experts are listed as contributing toward the text. The introductory section describes the anatomy of the
Am. J. Orthod. Dentofac. Orthop. October 1992
mouth, the various dental specialties, and offers advice on seeking good professional care. The second section encompasses basic dental care, such as maintaining dental health, first aid for dental emergencies, overcoming dental fear, and an overview of operative, periodontic, and pediatric procedures. The special needs of infants, children, adolescents, and ultimately aged persons are outlined. The section on advanced dental procedures provides information on subjects such as endodontics, implants, oral surgery, orthodontics, cosmetic dentistry, temporomandibular disturbances, special needs of medically compromised patients, and the economics of dental care. The final chapter discusses the numerous and varied developmental and pathologic disorders of the hard and soft tissues of the mouth and jaws. The volume is written in an easy-to-read style and is adequately illustrated with black and white photographs and drawings. As a good information resource and guide to dental health for the family, the book serves its purpose well. Alex Jacobson
An Atlas of Dental Radiographic Anatomy, 3rd edition Myron J. Kasle Philadelphia: WB Saunders. 287 pages
Sections of the third printing of the atlas have been enlarged, and a chapter on "Other Imaging Modalities" added at the end. Selected intraoral radiographs of a vast array of pathologic or anomalous conditions in the human maxillary and mandibular respective dental arches are featured in the first two sections of the book. The third section incorporates various types of extraoral skull radiographs, such as lateral oblique, panoramic, lateral and frontal head films, and radiographs of the temporomandibular joint. Film artifacts and technical errors, such as exposure problems, radiopacity, foreshortening, cone cut, overlapping, chemical spills, packaging, processing, and static electricity artifacts, are among the oddities periodically encountered in taking radiographs that are featured in the next sections. Under the all-embracing title of "Items Commonly Seen in Dental Radiography" are those radiographs not categorized in earlier sections of the atlas. Examples of salivary gland depressions, periapical radiolucency, microdont, root resorption, nasopalatine cyst, incisive nerve foramen cyst, calcified stylohyoid ligament, and dilacerated teeth are included in this "miscellaneous" section. The last brief section of the book introduces alternative imaging modalities, which are radionuclide studies, sonography, and computerized tomograms (CT scans).
Volume 102 Number 4
Over the years the author has managed to collect excellent examples of radiographic material pertaining to dentistry. Radiographs generally do not reproduce well in print. The enlarged intraoral and bite-wing films (which comprise the vast majority) are particularly good. The reduced frontal and lateral head films, and particularly the temporomandibular joint films are not as crisp as one would like. The legends are clear and easy to decipher. The volume should serve dental students well during their educational years and in the years beyond. Alex Jacobson
Thesis abstracts The effects of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-13,) on the motility of osteoblast-like cells John C. Griffiths, DDS Department of Orthodontics, University of Connecticut, 1991.
Bone remodeling and microfracture healing provide the basic mechanism allowing tooth movement in the alveolar bone. These processes require changes in the local position of osteoblastic or preosteoblastic cells, and transforming growth factor-13~ has been proposed as one of the regulators of these events. In the current study we characterized the motility of cultured osteoblast-like and fibroblast-like cells and investigated the effects of TGF-[3 t on the motility of osteoblast-like MC3T3.EI cells, using the culture wound healing assay. ROS 17/2.8 and SAOS-2 osteoblast-like cells exhibited significantly decreased motility rates (0.07 ___ 0.01 mm/day and 0.046 ___ 0.004 mm/day, respectively) compared with EL2 and HT fibroblastlike cells (0.29 --- 0.03 mm/day and 0.47 ___ 0.06 mm/day, respectively). MC3T3.EI cells treated with TGF-I3t (2 ng/ml) showed more than a threefold reduction in cell motility (0.06 ___ 0.004 mm/day) compared with untreated cells (0.22 --- 0.07 mm/day) that exhibited a motility rate similar to fibroblast-like cells. 3H-thymidine incorporation assays showed similar rates of MC3T3.EI cell proliferation at the streak border after 3 days in this assay for both TGF-131 treated and control MC3T3.EI cells indicating that proliferation does not have a substantial role in explaining the difference in motility observed. In parallel, cell growth assays using both control and treated MC3T3.E1 cells showed that after 7 days treatment with TGF-13t resulted in a twofold increase in growth rate. To further investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying TGF-13~ regulation of osteoblast-like cell motility, adhesion assays were performed with various natural and synthetic peptides as
Reviews and abstracts
substrates and TGF-I3~ treated and control MC3T3.EI cells. There was minimal attachment by either group of cells to albumin or type I collagen, whereas treated and control cells had similar peak attachment levels on fibronectin, vitronectin, and the synthetic peptide 2000 each at 5 to 25 p.g/ml. These results suggest that reduction in cell motility may be characteristic of differentiation of bone cells and that TGF-13, may be an important regulator in the process of bone remodeling that occurs during tooth movement.
The stability of deep overbite correction J. Burzin The Unirersity of Connecticut, Farmhzgton, Co/lnecticttl, 1991.
Deep overbite can be corrected by molar extrusion, incisor intrusion, or a combination of the two. The present retrospective study examined 26 growing patients treated at the University of Connecticut, School of Dental Medicine, Department of Orthodontics. The purpose of the study was to evaluate with the use of cephalometric superimpositions if intrusion of maxillary incisors is a viable and stable method to correct deep overbite. The effect of growth on the treatment and stability of deep overbite correction, with the use of a control group, was also studied. The average treatment time was 2.32 years and the average posttreatment observation period was 2.0 years. Overbite showed a mean reduction of 3.31 mm during treatment and a mean relapse of 0.8 mm. Maxillary incisors were intruded an average of 2.32 mm and relapsed only 0.15 ram. During treatment, the maxillary molar extrusion was almost negligible and the individual vertical growth pattern of the patients was not altered during treatment. It was concluded that deep overbite correction by intrusion in a growing sample is stable and does not erupt maxillary molars or increase the vertical skeletal dimension with respect to the control group.
Long term stability and prediction of soft tissue changes following LeFort I surgery Gregory A. Hack Unirersity of Connecticut, Farmington, Conn., 1991.
Several evaluations of soft tissue changes after orthognathic surgery have been undertaken and many correlations of soft tissue to hard tissue movements have been established. These studies have not, however, specifically discussed the long-term stability or characteristics of the soft tissue changes. The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to determine the long-term