Cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide combination as neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced nonsmall-cell lung cancer: A meta-analytic review

Cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide combination as neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced nonsmall-cell lung cancer: A meta-analytic review

275 4’-Epi-doxorubicin in advanced lung cancer. A phase II trial Giaccone G. Donadto M, Bonardi G, Iberti V, Calciati A. Division of Medical Onco...

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in advanced

lung cancer.

A phase II trial

Giaccone G. Donadto M, Bonardi G, Iberti V, Calciati A. Division of Medical Oncology. Ospedale S. Giovanni. A.S., Torino. Invesl New Dregs 1990;8:393-6. Fifty evaluable patients with advanced lung cancer (28 small cell and 22 non-small cell carcinomas), mainly preueated by chemotherapy, received 4’-epi-doxorubicin 90 mg/m’ every 3 weeks. Two partial responses were obtamed in small cell lung cancer patients, which lasted 153 and 168 days, Leukopenia, emesis and alopecia were the most frequent side effects. Two patients who previously received anthracyclines died suddenly of cardiac failure, another patient had severe congestive heart failure, and four others had minor cardiac dysfunctions. 4’-Epi-doxornbicin has a modest activity in advanced lung cancer, mainly preueated by chemotherapy and is not devoid of significant cardiotoxicity in this patient population.

for advanced lung carcinoma Focan C, Bastens B, Driesschaert P et al. CIinrque St-Josph-SteElisaberh. Liege. Anna Rev Chronopharmacol 1990;7:219-22. The authors reported on the clinical toxicity of a randomized chemotherapy uial admimstering etoposide (100 mg/m2,days 1 + 2 + 3) given eitheratham (A)orat6pm (B)andcisplatin lOOmg/m2at6pmon day 4. Thts chemotherapy protocol was administered to previously unueated patients suffering from an advanced lung cancer. Despite some differences among both groups (less severe nausea-vomiting, less otoloxicity and less dose reductions in group B. but more severe alopecta in this group - p < 0.006-0.045). no difference in overall dose intensities could be detected wtth regard to the time scheduled chemotherapy. Relationshipsamongtumorresponsiveness,cellsensitivity,doxorobicin cellular


and drug-induced



lung cancer xenografls Pratesi G, Capranico G, Binaschi M et al. Division of Expermenra/ Oncology B. lsritulo Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Via Venerian I, 20133 Milan. Int J Cancer 1990:46:669-74. In an altempl lo understand the underlymg cellular/biochemical factors of sensitivity/resistance m human small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), 2 SCLC tumor lines were compared with respect to tumor responsiveness lo drug treatment, cell sensitivity, cellulardoxorubicin accumulation, and DNA topoisomerase-B-mediated DNA cleavage. The tumor lmes growing in nude mice with similar growth characteristics (doubling time around IO days) were selected since one (POCI tumor) was found to be hypersensitive and the other (FOSG tumor) resistant to doxorubicin treatment. The pattern of anti-tumor drug response of the doxotubtcm-resistant mmorwasatypical (i.e.,non-adherent to the wellcharacterized multi-drug-resistant phenotype), since it responded to vincristine. The markedly different in vtvo tumor response reflected the Intrinsic cellular sensitivity to doxorubicin. No correlation was found belweencellulardrugaccumulation anddoxorubicinsensitivtty following in viuo exposure to thedrug. In agreement with this observation, the expression of mdr-I gene was undetectable in dtese tumors. Thus, in the PGSG tumor. resistance to doxorubtcm occurred without expression of the P-glycoprotein and reduction of cellular drug accumulation. In conuast. the extent of DNA cleavage produced by doxorubicin was markedly higher in the doxorubicin-hypcrsensittve than in the doxortbicin-resistant lumor. These results, taken together with previousobservalions in SCLC cell lines, support the important role of DNA topoisomerase-mediated effects in the sensitivity of SCLC to doxornbicm. in two human


Cyclophosphamide chemotherapy meta-analytic


and locally

ifosfamide advanced


as neoadjuvaot


lung cancer:



Rose11R, Moreno I, Maesue J et al. Deparrmenr of Oncology. Hospital de Badalona. Germans Trios i Pujol. Box 72.08916 Badalona. Barcelona. J Surg Gncol 1990;45: 124-30. Twenty-three patients with margmally resectable and unresectable non-small-cell lung cancer (stages IIIA and IIIB) were treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All patients received three cyclesofpreopcrativc chemotherapy with two alkylating agents, cyclophosphamide 2.5 g/m2 muavenously (I.v.) and ifosfamide 3.5 p/m’ iv., mesna 12 9/

mz was given addittonally to prevent drug hcmaturia. Six of 23 patients (26%) had partial response. Of the seven patients who underwent thoracotomy, lwo were completely resected, but with macroscopic residual disease. Mean time to progression for the whole group was 7 months. Fifteen patients had progression of disease, with local metastams only in SIX,and distant metasmses in eight. After administering 52 chemotherapy cycles, cyclophosphamide-ifosfamide doses were cut down. as eight of 16 patients required hospitalizstion for fever durmg neutropenia nadirs. This two-alkylating (non-cisplatm) regimen, unltke cisplatin-based regimens, was ineffective, and further trials are not recommended Carboplatin small-cell

in combination lung cancer



in inoperable



Weynants P, Humblet Y, Bosly A et al. UCL CIlnrcal Oncology Group. Cliniques UniversitairesSr. Luc, IOAvenueHippocrale, IZOOBrussels. Med Oncol Tumor Pharmacother 1990:7:219-22. Carboplatin, a second generation platinum complex, is less nephrotoxic and emetogenic than its parent compound. We have tested the objective response to and the toxicity of the combination carboplatm 330 mg m 2 on day 1 with etoposide 120 mg m-z on days I,3 and 5, administered every 3 weeks in histologically proven inoperable nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with a good performance status. Thirty-one patients entered the study; 29 were evalttable for response, 24 after 3 courses and 5 after 2 courses of chemodterapy. An overall response rate of 21% was found including zero complete response and 6 partial responses, In addition, 3 minor responses (IO%), 12 stable diseases (38%). and 9 progressive diseases (39%) were observed. The median survival was 48 weeks, including 68 weeks for non-metastatic (MO) patients and 27 weeks for metastatic (M+) patients. This regimen was well tolerated. Gasuointestinal toxicity never exceeded WHO grade II and renal function remained in the normal range for all cases. Haematological toxicity was low m the majority of the cases; nevertheless it proved to be the dose limiting toxicity as illustrated by two grade III anemia, one grade III leucopenia, one grade 111and one grade IV duombocytopcnia. Carboplatm-etoposide combination is not more active, but clearly much less toxic than cisplatinetoposide in NSCLC. Phaselstadyofacivicinandcisplatin A National



innon-small-celllungcancer: of Canada


Maroun JA, Stewart DJ, Verma S, Evans WK. Eisenhauer E. Orlawa Regional Cancer Cenfre General Hospilal Division, SO1 Smyrh Road. Omva. Onr.,KlHRL6. Am JClin GncolCanccrClin Trials 1990;13:4014. Seventeen previously unueated patients with metastalic non-smallcell lung cancer were entered in this phase I uial. Treatment consisted of acombinatton ofacivicin andcisplatinata starting dose of I2 and 15 mg/m’, respectively, given iv. during 5 days and repeated every 28 days. A lotalof46cycles wasgiven. Renal functionabnormality wasthe dose-limiting toxicity of cisplaun with a maximum tolerated dose of 12 mg/m’. This toxicity occurred at a dose lower than expected, indicating a possible potentiation of platinum renal toxicity by acivicin. Myelosuppression was thedoselimiting toxicity of acrvicin. with a maximum tolerated dose of 12 mgfm’. Other side effects included generalized weakness and gasuointeslinal and neurological symptoms. In I5 patients evaluable for response seven progressed, six were stable for a median duration of 13 weeks, and two patients achieved a partral remission lasting 8 and 24 weeks, respectively. The overall response rate was 13%. The recommended phase II dose of both agents in this schedule was 12 mg/m2. The possible enhancement of cisplatm toxicity might have compromised the overall response rate of the combination and further studies using these drugs m this schedule are not recommended. Pilot






and etoposide

in advanced

lung carcinoma

Bidoli P, Spinazze S, Santoro A, Casali P, Bedini AV, Guzzon A. Division of Medical Oncology. Isrituto Nazionale Tumori. Via Venezian. J 20133 Milan. Am J Clm Oncol Cancer Clin Trials 1990: 13:424-6. Twenty-five patients with advanced non-small-cell lung carcmoma