04 Llquld and gas productlon from gaseous reactanta, 96100326 such as aynthaala gas Jager, B. et al., (Assigned to) Sasol Chemical Industries (Proprietary) Ltd., EUR. Pat. EP.609,079, Aug. 1994.
Methane partial oxldatlon to methanol. 1. Effacta Of reaction condltlona and addltlvaa Omata, K. et al., Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., Apr. 1994, 33, (4), 784-789. Noncatalytic direct oxidation of methane was conducted in a high pressure flow type system lo clarify the effect of operational factors and additives. The reaction conditions were 300.500°C; 21-41 atm; CHJair ratio, 3/l17/l;. residence time, 3-15 s. Methanol selectivity was affected by reaction condnions, especially the methane/oxygen ratio. Additives such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and hydrocarbons improved methanol selectiyity and reduced the imliation temperature of the methane-oxygen reactIon. The observations suggest that hydrogen-donating species may be essential for selective methanol formation.
By-products related to fuels
96/00334 Pyrogaalflcatlon: An economic affactlva and acologlcally clean method of praparatlon and use of low-grade fuels In powsr plants Belosel’skii, B. S. and Khmelevskaya, E. D. Teploenergetikn (Moscow), 1994, 1, 26-29. (In Russian) A coal gasification combined cycle for power generation is analyzed theor&call< It consists of rapid pyrolyzes-of pulverized brown coal at 550. 660’ and residence time 0.1-0.35, followed by tar separation from the pyrolysis gas and gasification of the semicoke. This 2.sta e gasification scheme gives 500 m3 gas r 1 ton of coal, and the calon.f@ IC value of the gas mixture obtained is 2.!? times that of generator gas. 96100335 Race to produce coal aaam mathana Queensland Government Mining J., Se . 1994, 95, 19-21. Reports that the race is on in Queens Pand to establish Australia’s first commercial coalbed methane gas production wells. Spouted-bad coal gaalflar 95DQ336 Nakajima, F. et al., (Assigned to) Mitsubishi Heavy bad. Ltd., JAP. Pat.
JP.O6,136,371, May 1994.
Method and apparatus for coal gaalflcatlon 95100326 Tanaka, K. (Assigned to) Nippon Steel Co.Ltd., JAP. Pat. JP.O6,145,673, May 1994. Nltrogan ralaaaa In the gaalflcatlon of carbons 95100329 Grant, K. A. et al., Carbon, 1994, 32, (5). 883-895. The gasification behaviour of a suite of carbons has been investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzer mass spectrometer. The carbons were derived from acenaphthylene by carbonization to 873 K, in the pressure range 0.1-6.5 MPa, and subsequently calcined and treated with ammonia to 1073K. The results from isothermal and temperature programmed gasification studies were used to study the gasification of the various types of active sites and the release of nitrogen during gasification.
Describes a spouted-bed coal kasifier for producin a gas containing mainly CO, Hz and CH, by partial combustion of coaf. m combined-cycle The gasifier is equipped with a water-cooled wall which f” wer generation. _ as low temperature cooling water m the gasification reaction zone to cause strong adhesion of semi-melt ashes. This prevents the deposition of slags on the wall in the gasification reaction zone. 95/00337
Spouted-bad coal gaalflar and Ita oparatlon method Kanezaki, N. and Koba ashi, Y. (Assigned to) Mitsubishi Heavy Ind. Ltd.,
JAP. Pat. JP.O5,331,4 B7, Dec. 1993.
A process for a spouted-bed coal gasifier, especially for coal-fired power plants, corn rises a quenching ipe Portion connected with the cooling pipe at the slug 8lscharge outlet wit.K a cooling surface exposed to the discharge outlet side.
04 BY-PRODUCTS RELATED TO 95100330
Partial oxidation of low rank coal
Child, E. T. (Assigned to) Texaco Inc., US Pat. 5,324,336, Jun. 1994. A process where abundant low-cost low-rank coal may now be gasified by partial oxidation or burned in a furnace or boiler. About 30 to 45 wt. parts of comminuted low-rank coal is mixed and reacted in the reaction zone of a partial oxidation gas generator with a free-oxygen containing gas and approximately l-3 wt. parts of a residual fuel oil, and approximatley 55-70 wt parts of water. The hot effluent stream of synthesis gas from the partial oxidation gasifier could be purified to provide a gas stream which will not emit pollution lo the environment. Pore alza dlatrlbutlon of coals and chars from western Canada Xu, Y. et al., Fuel, NOV. 1994, 73, (ll), 1797-1801. The small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique was used to determine the pore size distributions of some coals from western Canada and their resulting chars. Chars were prepared by pyrolysis at 930°C in nitrogen until no further volatile matter was evolved. The distribution peak of the minerals was identified by acid treatment. Assuming that minerals dispersed in carbonaceous medium are not subject to sintering during pyrolysis, the mineral distribution peak was used as the internal standard to convert each pore size distribution of a coal sample and its char to the same scale. In this way, the changes in pore size distribution that occur during pyrolysis were compared. 95100331
Productlon of hydrogen from methanol. 1. Catalyst characterization atudlaa Idem. R. 0. and Bakkshi. N. N. Ind. Ena. Chem. Res.. Seu. (91. . 1994.33. I ..I. 2047:205S. Various Cu-Al catalysts with copper concentration ranging from 0 to 57.3 wt% were prepared by coprecipitation techniques for the production of H, from methanol.
FUELS Acid treatment of llgnlta and Its affect on actlvatlon 95100338 Samaras, P. et al., Carbon, 1994, 32, (S), 771-776. Coal specimens with different contents of inorganic constituents were produced from Greek lignite under various acid treatment conditions.Activated carbons were produced with heat treatment of the raw and acid-treated lignites at 900’. Characterization of the activated carbons was accomplished by adsorption of N, at 77 K and CO, at 298 K. Adsorption isotherms were analyzed by the Dubinin-Radushkevich method to give an assessment of the micropore volumes. The ash content of the lignites depended upon the type of the acid used and the treatment stages. Removal of the catalytically active inorganic constituents brought about a lowering in the reactivity of the acid-treated coals. Complete demineralization resulted in activated carbons with a highly developed microporosity and very large uore volumes.
95100339 Adaorptlon of oxygen and nltrogan on AIPO,-5 and SAPO-5 at moderate praaauraa ualng a novel adaorptlon/daaorptlon method Choudhary, V. R. et al., Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., May 1994, 33, (S), 1319-1323. Two simple and inexpesnive volumetric adsorptiotidesorption methods have been developed for the collection of adsorption isotherm data for weakly adsorbed gases at moderate pressures. Adsorption of 0, and N, on AlPO,-S and SAPO-S at 309 and 329 K and 500-3000 kPa has been studied using the two methods. Sips’ equation was found to give a good fit for the adsorotion isotherm data for 0. and N. on both adsorbents. The comparison df the relative adsorption of 0 ;nd N, on the two adsorbents indicates that AlPO,-S is a better choice I or its use in the OJI$ . . separation from air.
95/00340 Anode conaumptlon study Barber, M. A. and Proulx, A. L. Light. Met. (Warrendale, Pa), 1994, 677-682. As part of a test to evaluate different cokes used for the fabrication of prebaked anodes, a study was undertaken to identify and quantify the faciors which influence anode consumption. The auihors looked at factors other than the quality of the anode raw materials, such as forming techniaue. oost condition. and the oosition of the anodes in each wt. Everv anodd ised during tke test w& weighed before setting and again afte-r changing.
Various copper-aluminium catalysts with copper concentration ranging from 0 10 27.8 wt% copper were prepared by coprecipitation techniques. These catalysts were calcined at temperatures in the range of 300.7OO’C and then reduced in a H, atmosphere at 300°C. Methanol decomposition and steam reforming reactions were studied in a microreactor at atmospheric pressure over a temperature range of 170.250°C and methanol space velocities of 26.4 and 16.7 h“, respectively. Methanol conversion was found to be a strong function of catalyst reducibility and copper concentration.
Are aromatlc dlluanta used In pyrolyala axparl95looW manta Inert? Savage, P. E. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., May 1994, 33, (5), 1086-1089. Hydrogen abstraction from compounds such as benzene and biphenyl is a potential complication when these aromatics are used as diluents in hydrocarbon pyrolysis experiments. The paper presents a general methodology for quantitatively assessing the likelihood that substrate-derived radicals abstract hydrogen from a nominally inert diluent.
Productlon of hydrogen from methanol. 2. Exparl95/00333 mental studlea Idem, R. 0. and Bakhshi, N. N. Ind Eng. Chem. Res., Sep. 1994,33, (9),
Fuel and Energy Abstracts January 1995