17 Energy (supplies, policy, economics, forecasts) 95lO1051
Topology and rtablllty of trlvrlrnt
and Shao, Y.
Fullerene Science & Technology, 1994, 2, (4),
An algorithm to generate the molecular graphs of the trivalent clusters is presented. All the lyhedral trivalent cages with 4-16 vertices are enumerated, with particu p” ar attention being given to their symmetry, spectra and stability. The relative stability of isomers is not decided solely by their symmetry. A new kind of spectral phenomenon is reported. This is the occurrence of graphs having the same HOMO-LUMO gap, the same E-pi and the same even-order moments. The authors refer to it as ‘pseudoisospectrality’.
95lO1052 Towardscuatomar-orlantad automatlon Van Gelder, J. W. Gas (Netherlands), Nov. 1994, 114, (ll), 592-595. (In Flemish) To enable enernv distribution comoanies to oDerate in a trulv customeroriented wav azomation would have to ch&ge. One intenrited svstem would be thd best solution, but that is not feasitie at the moient. Thib&t alternative is to use various computer&d systems capable of two-way data exchange. This is not a simple matter either, however, especially when programs are based on different operating systems or different database programs. There are two viable approaches. Either use one operating system on which all automated svstems within a comuanv should run. or use the method of selective systek linking on the ba&s if required speed of information exchange. The latter option offers more freedom of system
Supplies, Policy, Economics, Forecasts 95101057 Altamatlva transport fuels Green, R. and Pearce, S. Energy World, Oct. 1994, (222), 8-11. The article investigates the alternative gaseous fuels which are currently recognised as being the most likely fuels of the future. Their performance is compared, where appropriate, to the conventional hydrocarbon fuels, petrol and diesel fuels, used in spark ignition and compression ignition engines respectively. 95lOlO55
Annual energy ravlaw 1993: Spaclal Iaaua - Energy In Europa, Juna 1994 of the European Communities, Brussels, 1994, 180 pp. Commission
95101059 Brltaln’a auatalnabla davalopmant atratagy: Envlronmental quallty and policy than a Christie, I. Policy &dies, Autumn 19%4, 15, (3), 4-20.
Calculating the energy raqulramanta of houaahold 95/01050 purchases. A practical step by atop method 1’; 6Egelenburg, B. C. et al., Energy Policy, Aug. 1994, 22, (8), Turbulent flow flald In tangantlally Injected awlrl 95lO1053 flows In tubas Chang, F. and Dhir, V. K. Inr. J. Hear & Fluid Flow, Oct. 1994, 15, (5), 346-356. The turbulent flow field in a tube has been experimentally studied when fluid is injected tangential1 . The experiments were conducted by injecting air through injectors place (r on the periphery of an 88.9 mm inside diameter and 1.5 m-long acrylic tubes. Four injections of 15.88-mm inside diameter and six injectors of 22.23-mm inside diameter were used in the two sets of experiments. Tangential to total momentum flux rate ratio of 7.84 and 2.67 respectively were obtained in the two sets of experiments. Using a single rotated straight hot wire and a single rotated slanted hot wire anemometer, profiles for mean velocities in the axial and tangential directions, as well as the Reynolds stresses were obtained.
Tutorial. Dlgltal communlcatlona for protactlon. 95lOlO54 Part 3. Flbra optlca Agganval, R. and Moore, P. Power Engng. J., Oct. 1994, 8, (S), 241-246. Describes the basic principles of fibre optics together with an outline of some of the practical considerations necessary in setting up a fibre optical system for transmission of digital data.
Wall heat conduction affect on natural convactlon 95101055 In an enclosure flllad with a non-Darclan porous medium Chane. W. J. and Lin. H. C. Numerical Hear Transfer. * , Parr A. ADDkations,%m. 1994, 25, (a), 671-684. A numerical analysis has been made of the conjugate natural convection in a rectangular enclosure filled with a fluid-saturated porous medium and surrounded with four solid walls. The conductance of the walls is assumed to be much greater than that of the cavity filled with a porous medium. The main objective was to investigate the influences of the ratio of thermal conductivity of the wall to that of the fluid-porous matrix composite, the Darcy-modified Rayleigh number, the Prandtl number, and the aspect ratio. The streamlines and isotherms are presented; also, the local and average Nusselt numbers are presented along the interface between walls and cavity. A non-Darcian model was employed and the numerical method was SIMPLE-C.
X-ray powder dlffractomatry In atudlaa of aolld
Peilaszek, J. Fuel, Nov. 1994, 73, (ll), 1792-1796. From the analysis of peak shape and position of reflections in a wide-angle X-ray diffraction pattern the parameters describing the microcrystallme structure of solid carbons can be calculated. A more general description of the structure of solid carbons can be deduced from the analysis of radial distribution function (RDF) curves. Analysis of the so-called characteristic diagrams obtained from the RDF cumes makes it possible to select the most probable three-dimensional structural model in terms of the most distinctive features of the structure of solid carbons: the degree of correlation between neighbouring layers and the degree of perfection of hexagonal layers.
Fuel and Energy Abstracts January 1995
An ac&ate and fast method is presented for calculating the energy requirement of consumption items. The method combines process analysis and input-output analysis. The energy requirement of a particular consumption item is calculated in ten steps, each dealing with certain parts of the production network. Each step can be standardized to a large extent. The method is illustrated by applying it to one product: a domestic refrigerator.
95/01051 A capaclty growth Input-output modal Henry, E. W. Energy Economics, Jul. 1994, 16, (3), 193-203. An n-sector input-output model of sector output capacity growth is solved through backward recursion from known capacities of terminal year T. A set of simultaneous linear equation is found, linking capacity expansipn with known capacity differences derived from years T and (T-1). For the equation solution making unacceptable capacitysubstituion of spare capacity between sectors, an iterative numerical algorithm is proposed, to minimize unwanted capacity under conditions of non-substitution of capacity between different sectors. Corn arison of form with that of the typical annual equation of the LeontIe .P dynamic inverse shows that the present model is a first difference version of the latter. A numerical illustration uses Irish 12 sector data, with a two-sector appendix offering further detailed explanation.
95lO1952 Cabom, R. Emnribve
The challangaa of energy policy
Proc. Energy Policy in the 199Os, The Transition to the Marker Conf., Oxford Economic Research Associates, 1994,
p&live Market Co&
Oxford Economic Research Assoc., Oxford, UK,
1994, 9pp. Discusses the issues facing consumers relating to the privatisation and regulation of the energy utilities. 95/010&l
Coatlng the anvlronmantal damage from energy production Pearce. D. W. Technolonv in the Third Millenium: Enerav. Societv -. Roval .
Discussion Meeting, Lon;ibn, 1994, 17pp. The paper discusses the costs of energy production and how they are regu-
lated in order to control pollution. CRINE galnlng ground 95io1955 Potter, N. Petroleum Review, Sep. 1994, 48, (572), 398-400. CRINE - Cost Reduction Initiative in the New Era - was launched at a two-day conference in London in December 1993. A report on progress so far was given at a conference in Aberden on 24th November. The author looks at what has so far been achieved.