Liquid fuels (sources, properties,
97101724 Use of programmable coking industry Kostenko,
1995, (1 I), 21-23.
in the byproduct (In Russian)
Sener, M. and Gundogdu, M. N. Fuel, 1996, 75, (I I), 1313-1322. Mineral and maceral types show that the huminite and liptinite groups tend to be associated with smectite, clinoptilolite and calcite in Himmetoglu oil shale, while the liptinite group is accompanied by analcime and dolomite in bituminous laminated marl. The pH value increases from bottom (pH < 9) to top (pH > 9) in the Himmetoglu formation and volcanogenic materials have played a very important role in deposition of organic matter.
Aquathermolysis of organic of hydrogen sulfide and sulfate G. G. and David, T. Prepr. Pup.-Am.
Cho, H. et al. EnergyFuels, 1996, 10, (6) 1220-1226. In order to characterize the breakage characteristics of coal-water mixtures, grinding tests were conducted. Five bituminous coals were ground in a conventional tumbling ball mill for different times at solids concentrations of 40-70% by weight, both with and without the use of a dispersant. On the basis of the breakage parameters obtained from the laboratory tests, simulations were performed to analyse an industrial scale two-stage grinding circuit. 97101727
Chemical structure of oil shale kerogen
Ishiwatari, M. Jasco Rep., 1996, 38. (4). 42-48. (In Japanese) An investigation into the thermal decomposition behaviour of oil shale and kerogen was undertaken by stepwise pyrolytic gas chromatography (PyGC), and based on the results the chemical structure of kerogen was studied. Oil shales produced in USA, Australia, China, and Morocco and also kerogen extracted from them were used. It was found that there was no essential difference between the results of PY-GC analysis of oil shale from those of kerogen. Based on the analysis results, the characteristics of the chemical composition of kerogen and also its thermal decomposition behaviour into isoprenoids, alkanes, alkenes, alkylbenzenes, alkylphenols, etc. were described.
Effect of co-hydrogenation and coal on heavy oil properties
Zhang, D. and Gao J. Shryou Huagang, 1996, 25, (7), 466-470. (In Chinese) various kinds of petroleum heavy oil and coal were subjected to batch hydrogenation, carried out in autoclaves of small capacity. The light fractions of the processed oil increase during the co-hydrogenation process. The saturated hydrocarbon content and molecular weight of the processed oils decreased while the aromatic content increases with increase in hydrogenation temperature. The As removal ratio of the processes oil is higher than 90% in some cases. 97101729
Laux, H. and Kopsch, H. Chem. Tech. (Leipzig), 1996, 48, (5), 267-270. (In German) Thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry were used to investigate evaporation enthalpies of higher-boiling crude petroleum components. These were then compared with values estimated by equations of Riedel and Pitzer. The author also discusses the applicability of these calculation methods for higher-boiling components based on enthalpies of n-alkanes and on experimental results from the literature for crude petroleum and for coal liquid fractions. The influence of a colloid-disperse phase on the results was discussed.
Experimental study on sulfur during fluidized bed combustion of oil shale
Wang, G. ef al. Ranliao HuaxueXuebao, 1996, 24, (4), 315-322. (In Chinese) A Maoming oil shale combustion experiment and SO1 capture was carried out in a batch fluidized bed reactor with the corresponding flue gas analyser for monitoring SOz concentration on line. The factors affecting SOz
Fuel and Energy Abstracts
Geochemical and petrographic oil shale field, Goynuk, Turkey
Chem. Sot., Div. Fuel Hoffmann. Chem., 1997,42, (2), 772-778. American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry. As enhanced oil recovery techniques, thermal recovery processes are well established. Thermal recovery temperatures in the reservoir can reach 320°C and under these specific conditions chemical reactions of the reservoir sulfate and hydrogen sulfide easily occur. In the presence of organic compounds redox reactions lead to the formation of a variety of inorganic, as well as organic compounds in different oxidation states, including elemental sulfur. The objective of these investigations was to study the thermal induced reactions of organic compounds in the presence of hydrogen sulfide and aqueous solutions of alkali metal as well as alkali earth metal sulfates.
emission, such as bed temperature, oil shale particle sizes, water content in oil shale, Ca/S molar ratio and ash/oil shale weight ratio, were examined. From analysing the experimental phenomena it is discovered that a vital reason for the CaiS molar ratio for S retention in industrialized fluidized bed far exceeding 1.0 is the intrinsic rate of the SO2 formation in volatile combustion being higher than that of S retention by limestone.
97101732 Geostatistical methods for characterizing, ing and appraising hydrocarbon reservoirs
Zorilescu, D. and Marcas, G. Rev. Rom. Pet. 1990. 3, (3). IhX-173. (In Romanian) Reserves of gold-silver, ferrous and non-ferrous ore reservoirs were appraised in the first applications of the geostatistical methods. Then. these applications were also extended to coal, bauxite and oil reservoirs. The paper presents not only the well-known geostatistical methods, but also a new geostatistical method using a Monte Carlo type simulation of parameters for appraising hydrocarbon volume.
Interrelation of structural and physicochemical of hydrocarbons as fragments of coal organic mass
Gyul’maliev, A. M. et al. Khim. Tverd. Topl., (Moscow) 1996, (3), 24-30. (In Russian) The authors examined an interrelation of structural parameters of hydrocarbons of unspecified structure C,H,. This interrelation was used to calculate the physicochemical properties of the hydrocarbons in the framework of an additive system. The equations for calculation of boiling point, density, energy of intermolecular interactions, polarizahility, and refraction of hydrocarbons of unspecified structure were derived.
97101734 Investigation of polycyclic biomarker transformation during hydrous pyrolysis of oil shale by GC-MS Glumicic, T. L. et al. J. Serb. Chem. Sot., 1996, 61, (9), 809-816. For the purpose of simulating maturational changes of the organic matter, hydrous pyrolysis of immature oil shale from Vranje was carried out. Using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method (GC-MS) on the basis of m/z=191 and m/z=217 fragmentograms, polycyclic alkanes, steranes and terpanes, isolated from bitumens and hydrous pyrolysates were analysed. Based on the observed differences in the compositions of polycyclic alkanes isolated from bitumens and hydrous pyrolysates, structural changes of these biomarkers at the molecular level during hydrous pyrolysis were studied.
97101735 to 70°C
of heat capacity
of crude oils from 10
Sun, Y. et al. Shiyou Huugong. 1997, 26, (3). 187-189. (In Chinese), Beijing Huagon Yanjiuyuan. A precision automatic adiabatic calorimeter, at lO-7O”C, was used to measure the heat capacities of two crude petroleums (from Zhongyuan and Shengli Oil Fields) and three kinds of mixed petroleums. All experimental results are given in tables at an interval of 5°C. The reliability of the calorimeter was verified by measurement of the standard reference material, pure water. The precision and accuracy of the measurements were ?0.2% and ?0.3%, respectively, within the experimental temperature range.
97101736 oil shales
of three Turkish
Dogan, 0. M. and Uysal, B. Z. Fuel. 1996, 75, (12), 1424-1428. Thermogravimetric analysis was used in a non-isothermal experimental study to determine the overall kinetics of the pyrolysis of three Turkish oil shales: Beypazari, Seyitomer and Himmetoglu. The integral method was used in the analysis of the t.g.a. data to determine first-order pyrolysis kinetics. Himmetoglu oil shale gave better oil yields than the other two shales. The extent of pyrolysis was practically independent of particle size for all the shales. The rates of decomposition of Seyitomer and Himmetoglu oil shales were found to change at critical temperatures of 300 and 350°C respectively The experiment also determined porosities and surface areas of raw and spent shales.
97l01737 Oil shale carbonization chamber
Efimov, V. M. et al. Khim. Tverd. Top/. (Moscow), 1996, (3). 125-133. (In Russian) The data on operation of an oil shale retorting apparatus with an annular low-temperature carbonization chamber was generalized. For normal operation of new constructed retorts, the depth of the shale bed in annular low-temperature chamber had been reduced and the character of shale