Fuel science and technology (fundamental
97lQ4240 Application of phosphorized iron case in detonators allowed for coal mining Yang, Y. and Zhang, X. Baopo Qicai, 1997, 26, (2). 19-21. (In Chinese) The phosphorized iron case in detonators is safe to use, low-cost to produce and has, corrosion-resistant and anti-electrostatics properties.
Applications for and improvements to online coal quality monitors
Wykes, J. et al. Comm. Eur. Communifies, [Rep.] EUR 1997, (EUR 17406). 121 pp. Three on-line coal quality monitors were examined with respect to: (1) assessing performance and limitations of current applications of the monitors, (2) investigate potential new applications, (3) increase effectiveness and potential benefits of the monitors to the coal industry, and (4) assess the likely benefits of new or alternative systems. This was undertaken with the aim of improving the systems. The Bretby Stone Coal Monitor, an on-line dual-energy gamma-ray transmission instrument, the Ram-Feed Coal Quality Monitor, a side-stream device developed from a previous instrument, and the Natural Gamma Coal Quality Monitor, an online instrument that calculates ash content, are the three monitors under scrutiny. Further development of the Bretby Monitor was stopped due to inconsistent results based on the problems associated with calibration, configuration of the detector pairs, and poor equipment reliability. The remaining two instruments are promising but need further development.
Coal ash: mineral composition and leachability of
toxic metals Weiss, Z. and Kilka, Z. Proc. Int. Tech. Conf. Coal Util. Fuel Syst., 1996, 21, 99-110. A study of the thermal transformation of coal mineral matter in terms of phase and chemical composition. Both laboratory samples and ash from industrial sites were examined. The following factors were taken into account in the leachability tests: (1) method used for leaching; (2) granulometric composition; (3) combustion temperature; and (4) mineral composition of ash. 97104247 Coal feeding method for coke oven Horisaka, 0. and Kajiwara, K. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 09,100,472 [97,100,472] (Cl. ClOB31/02), 15 Apr 1997, Appl. 951279,614, 2 Ott 1995 5 pp. (In Japanese) Gas-flow transport, especially high-concentration plug-flow transport, is used in this coke feeding method. The method comprises adjusting on-off times of plug-forming valves and the supply status of carrier gas for the coal hopper, a transport line equipped with a degassing apparatus having a spherical slit design near a coal feeding inlet to the coke oven, and a particle-collecting apparatus connected between the feeding inlet and the degassing apparatus for separation of coal from carrier gas. Thus, the flaw amount of the carrier gas to the coke oven is reduced. The coal separated from the particle-collecting apparatus is then fed to the coke oven through a feeding valve.
coal quality impacts on your personal
computer Niksa, S. I’roc. Am. Power Conf. 1997, 59, (2) 1175-1179. The FLASHCHAIN model is now ready to provide important coal-specific information on rapid-heating volatiles yields, the partitioning of coalnitrogen among volatiles and char, detailed product distributions, and char characteristics. The only sample-specific information needed to simulate these coal quality impacts is the proximate and ultimate analyses of the coal. Full simulations require only a few seconds on modern personal microcomputers.
Carbon dioxide liquid-phase reactor for converting COa in carbonated water into carbon and CH4
Tsuji, T. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 09,137, 288 [97,137,288] (Cl. CZSBli 00), 27 May 1997, Appl. 951294,215, 13 Nov 1995, 6 pp. (In Japanese) A vessel wherein at least a portion is made of anode-forming iron oxide, a cathode in the vessel, an Hz reservoir connected to the vessel via a valve, and a carbonated water reservoir connected to the vessel via a valve make up the major components of the reactor. It may be equipped with a means for removing the C deposited on the anode. Supply of Hz from outside for methanation is unnecessary, resulting in low operation costs and allowing the reactor to be scaled down.
science, analysis, instrumentation)
on a coal-coal
facility Vonderbank, R. S. Int. .I. Energy Res., 1997, 21, (11) 985-1010. Fuel staging or fuel reburning is a possible primary measure for the reduction of NO, emissions from fossil-fired steam generators. It is intended to investigate if this primary measure can be applied efficiently to coal-fired combustion systems where pulverized coal is also used as a reburning fuel: coal reburning over a coal fire. This technology has to be tested accordingly. The company ENEL SpA is at present evaluating, together with ANSALDO Energia SpA, the option of demonstrating and extending the use of this technology in its coal-fired utility steam generators. Both companies have decided to erect a boiler simulation facility at ENEL’s experimental area Santa Gilla (Caglian). This facility is intended to replicate the time/temperature profiles of real boilers. One tool to support the design of firing systems is CFD simulation. Consequently, CFD simulation was applied to perform a ‘proof of concept’. Most important for the design of firing systems for the furnaces of utility steam generators or test facilities is the distribution of temperature inside the combustion chamber and the furnace exit temperature-especially the radiation transport responsible for the amount of energy transferred from the gaseous environment of the hot furnace to the furnace walls. Subsequently. this determines the mean furnace exit temperature. This is why the accuracy of temperature calculations depends directly on the radiation transport model, the gas emissivity approximations, the particle emissivity and the radiative properties of the furnace enclosure. The results of several combustion simulations of the coal reburning test facility are shown and discussed. Estimates of the possible effect of different wall temperatures on the combustion process itself and on the gas temperature inside the furnace are presented. 97104245 Chemical processes in energy related technology Mizuta, S. et al. Denki Kagaku oyobi Koeyo Butsuri Kagaku, 1991, 65, (7), 543-546. (In Japanese) This paper focuses on the high-temperature oxide superconductor film formation by thermal decomposition, thermochemical production of H using Mg-S-I cycle, and H production from HzS using Fe-Cl hybrid cycle.
97104249 Coal feeding method for coke oven Kunimasa, H. and Chikada, H. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 09,111,242 [97,111,242] (Cl. ClOB31/04), 28 Apr 1997, Appl. 95/265,434, 13 Ott 1995.6 pp. (In Japanese) The paper describes a coal feeding method for coke oven. Coal from a raw coal hopper of coal car stored with one-oven-full raw coal to the coking chamber through a screw feeder. The hopper is vertically divided by a dividing plate to two small compartments with (A) one compartment for storing the raw coal and (B) the other compartment for storing coal or coke having no softening-melting properties. Firstly, the raw coal in the compartment (A) is fed to the coke oven and the (non-caking) coal or powdered coke in the compartment (B) is then fed to the coke oven.
Coal fines utilization technologies ‘Emerging low cost-low polluting fuels’
97104249 Ashworth, 559-570.
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Proc. Int. Tech. Conf Coal Util. Fuel Syst., 1995, 20,
Coal quality expert: a powerful new tool for coal burning utilities to reduce emissions and cost
Harrison, C. D. et al. Proc. Int. Tech. Conf: Coal Util. Fuel Syst., 1993, 18, 63-76. More than 20 sub-models designed to predict the impact of coal quality on power plant operations, maintenance, economics and emissions comprise the coal quality expert. This is a PC-based computer tool that will provide a means to manage and evaluate coal purchases in a timely and consistent manner. The CQE will be flexible, and support the development and evaluation of high level strategies for compliance with key requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Amendments, such as estimating the potential contributions of coal cleaning, fuel switching, and retrofit options to meet overall SOz targets.
97104251 Combining cryogenic flue gas emission remediation with a C02/02 combustion cycle Meratla, Z. Energy Convers. Manage., 1997,38, (Suppl., Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Carbon Dioxide Removal, 1996) S147s152. Conventional flue gas emission remediation is tackled with a novel approach using well established cryogenic principles. The design focuses on the following objectives: low energy consumption, full heat recovery, complete water removal, high recovery efficiency and capture of NO,, SO, and COz as commercial grade NO*, SO2 and COz where needed. Heavy metals may also be extracted. The patented process yields commercial grade feed stock for secondary industries producing acids, fertilizers, polymers, methanol, etc., as well as CO2 for enhanced oil recovery and sequestration, and lends itself to total system energy integration. The application of the cryogenic process to a coal-fired power plant with a COz/Oz combustion cycle, using by-product oxygen from a hydrogen production facility, is described.
Correction of the composition of combustion gases by Ostwalds method without drawing of a control diagram
Piotrowicz, A. Gospod. Paliwami Energ., 1996, 44, (8), 2-3. (In Polish) Based on Ostwald method, formulas are derived for the calculation of the correct molecule fractions of CO*+ SOz, CO, and 0 in combustion gases.
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