Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Principles, Methodology, and Applications

Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Principles, Methodology, and Applications

86 tion, characterization and molecular composition of membranes. The hydrophobic effect on amphipathic molecules causes the self-association of phosp...

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86 tion, characterization and molecular composition of membranes. The hydrophobic effect on amphipathic molecules causes the self-association of phospholipids (Chapter 3) which is the principal method for investigating the properties of artificial structures (monolayers, micelles, bilayers) similar to real membranes. Three chapters deal with the properties of bitayers, giving a mathematical picture of the order and dynamics in biiayers, and describe the behaviour of solutes in bilayers. Chapters on lipid-protein interactions (~ncluding parts on conformation of membrane proteins) and on the structure and function of glycoproteins and gtycolipids show how the proteins and glycoconjugates increase the level of the specific biochemical functions associated with membranes. Four chapters give a large overview of the carrier and transport processes with and without gating mechanisms (such as chemical reactions and transmembrane potential) at cellular and macromolecular levels. The characterization of ionophores, transporters for glucose and ATP. cotransport, acetylcholine receptor, action potential, voltage gated channels and other topics are well treated in this part. The chapter on membrane-linked energy transducing systems in cells includes a small section on chemotactic response and flagellar motion of bacteria, although a separate chapter on cell motility in general can easily be justified. The last two chapters discuss the regulatory mechanisms in information transduction across membranes and the bulk transport by fusion and secretion (e.g., receptor mediated endocytosis). As the author says in the Preface: " n o attempt has been made to provide an extensive bibliography, although references as a general guide for the background material are also given". The book is well organized and reasonably free of topographic errors. On the other hand a little more attention should have been given to the figures. I highly recommend the book for researchers who are starting to work with biological membranes but have some biochemical background and who are also familiar with the terminology in organic chemistry. The monograph is also recommended to those who require a broad overview of the field of biomembranes. Ferenc Kil~r

Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Principles, Methodology, and Applications Edited by Felix W. Wehrli, Derek Shaw and I. Bruce Kneeland VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, F.R.G. This is a book designed to be a standard source about the use of magnetic resonance in medicine. It covers theoretical aspects by Dr. Shaw, Drs. Kanal and Wehrli, and Drs. Fullerton and Cameron. Technical and safety topics are spread over three chapters by Dr. Wesby, Drs. Hyde and Kneeland, and Dr. Schaefer. Four clinical topics covered are brain (Dr. Drayer), cardiovascular and pulmonary (Dr. Wesbey), abdomen and pelvis (Drs. Stark and Hahn), and musculoskeletal (Dr. Berquisti). Finally, three chapters cover the specialized topics of multinuctear magnetic reso-

87 nance imaging (Drs. Perman and Turski); flow phenomena (Drs. Wehrli and Bradley, Jr.); and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (Drs. Griffiths and Edwards). In terms of the theoretical discussions the topics are well covered. Each time a new author weighs in on a topic there are always new insights to be found. With that said, one should note that there are only so many ways one can say something. The chapters on fundamental principles and signal-to-noise cover well-traveled ground but the authors work diligently on giving a new slant to the subject. The chapters are informative and will be of value for a person who has some experience in the area. However, I do not feel a novice can learn about imaging from scratch from this. These sections of the book will remain valuable as review and refresher chapters on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The clinical chapters show several good examples of the application of MRI to pathology. A reader can be brought up to speed on clinical data quickly about what to expect in terms of images from various pathologies. Besides the catalog of anomalies, spectroscopy is covered in the brain chapter. The abdomen and pelvis chapter also refers to tissue characterization and surface coil techniques that emphasize subsurface features like the spinal chord. In the technical and safety aspects sections, the surface coil chapter discusses severn kinds of coils but focuses largely on the expertise of Drs. Hyde and Kneeland in loop-gap resonators. The chapter on magnetopharmaceuticals by Dr. Wesbey has a good mix of theoretical and practical concerns. However, he asks the initial question, "magnetic resonance agents, are they necessary?" Understandably his answer is in the affirmative. But the promise of N M R was to give tissue a pathological contrast without pharmaceutical intervention. One can only wonder where this noble goal has gone. Finally the safety chapter covers the relevant issues and provides the literature to investigate the issue at one's leasure. The final three chapters feature issues at the forefront of magnetic resonance in medicine. The chapter on multinuclear imaging is largely concerned with sodium imaging and the problems with imaging nuclei that can have multiple energy levels and very short relaxation times. Several examples of pathology are shown. The problems with sodium imaging are readily apparent on comparing proton images from this and other chapters to the sodium ones shown. Since angiography (following blood flow by X-ray after injection of an X-ray opaque contrast agent) is definitely not a zero risk procedure, it is heartening to see clear images of veins and arteries obtained by N M R methods. With N M R this is a non-invasive procedure. Drs. Wehrli and Bradley cover the topic well and point out several of the artifacts which can be seen in an image due to the flow. The chapter on magnetic resonance spectroscopy is strong. In conjunction with other chapters it shows the extreme range of knowledge required of a scientist doing medical NMR. One must know biochemistry, physics, medical electronics, appropriate medical indices and even physiological parameters. This is a broad and possibly impossible bill to fill. If you hope to fill that bill though this book can help you see the spectrum of problems you must be willing to confront. So as said previously, you will not learn

88 N M R i m a g i n g or s p e c t r o s c o p y b u t y o u will have a g o o d b o o k for a review of w h a t is going on a n d a b o o k you c a n refer to to see the r a n g e o f N M R i m a g i n g a n d s p e c t r o s c o p y p r e s e n t l y in use a n d where it c o u l d go. Dr. C.T. Burr