336 dogs in their districts; (6) that in the event of its being themselves off as such on honourable practitioners, to the of and of their their Thi...

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in their districts; (6) that in the event of its being themselves off as such on honourable practitioners, to the of and of their their This is not a injury practice patients. conclusively proved that M. Pasteur’s system provides & mere theoretical case. And we advise medical practitioners preventive remedy, facilities should be afforded for its to be particular in asking all reasonable evidence of state- application in England. In our next issue we purpose mentsmade by persons who are strangers to them. We dealing at length with the report. often receive complaints that representations made are not confirmed by actual experience. It is only fair to the general DUTCH FACTORY LEGISLATION. body of gentlemen who lay themselves out for locum tenens’ work-many of whom are highly capable men-to use THE Dutch Government, while prosecuting agitators, has precautions against those who bring discredit on a most thought fit to mitigate the cause of agitation by bringing useful class. Of course registration is only a legal form of forward laws for the protection of workpeople. Despatches qualification, and is not more important than evidence as to from the Hague announce that the Committee of the Second personal qualification, for procuring which each practitioner Chamber advise the restriction of the work of boys and girls must itely on himself. under sixteen years of age, and urge that young women under eighteen should be absolutely forbidden to work at LONDON FIRES. night or on Sundays. The work-day must be divided by THE great fire which on Saturday evening last destroyed two hours’ rest for meals, and the committee also advises a large portion of Mr. Whiteley’s premises at Westbourne- that women should not be allowed to work till a full month grove has once more directed public attention to the after their confinement. Further, there are recommendaundeniable insufficiency of the Metropolitan Fire Brigade tions dealing with the inspection of factories and workshops for the important duty which is cast upon it. It is under- by qualified officials. Laws are proposed to protect the stood that the responsible authorities feel their deficiency health and personal security of workmen, and measures for most keenly in the matter of horses; but from the figures creating a reserve fund for old age, deaths, accidents, and that have been made public it would seem that the force is illness. How far all these beneficent suggestions will meet not less under-manned than under-horsed, and that a sub- with the approval of the Legislature still remains to b& stantial addition ought to be made forthwith to Captain seen. The agitation prevailing in the country points to the Shaw’s resources both in men and material. The total force necessity of some such measures, and doubtless the statesincludes 589 men. It could hardly be too much to assume men of Holland will have the wisdom to yield rather than that a score, or say nineteen, of these would at any given provoke a dangerous storm. Already, twelve years ago moment be incapacitated by sickness and the like causes, so an important measure was enacted of this description. that the whole force available could not be reckoned at more According to the law of September 19th, 1874, the employthan 570. Then, again, a deduction of probably one-half ment of children under the age of twelve is forbidden. must be made from this number for men off duty, thus Exception, however, is made in cases of domestic service leaving not more than 285 ready to answer a summons. The and farm labour. The penalty for breaking the above law men are distributed through fifty-five stations, and if these is a fine of X2 10s. and from one to three months’ imare not to be wholly deserted a sufficient force must be left prisonment, together or separately. The new proposals behind to average at least two men to each station. This actually before the Dutch Parliament go much further than modest -provision would demand 110 men, leaving 175 at the the law of 1874, and undoubtedly the necessity of such disposal of the superintendent on duty at the fire. The legislation is becoming more and more apparent. The vast number of men actually mustered at Westbourne-grove is size of the factories, the presence of complicated, sometimes said to have been 173; so that it would seem not only that dangerous machinery, and the difficulties under such circumthe entire strength of the force was brought up for the stances of securing efficient ventilation and drainage, render emergency, but also that it was, considering the total it more and more urgent to arm the authorities with the strength of the brigade, a very strong and efficient muster. right of interference. It is also desirable that at the same But, although the men respond well to a summons and do time a competent staff of inspectors should be organised who their work in admirable style, it is painfully obvious that possess scientific and practical knowledge to detect defects, their number is much too small. A second large fire would on and whose position would place them above the danger of Saturday night have greatly overstrained their powers; and corruption. The working classes themselves must also be a third, had such a misfortune occurred, would have utterly able to assist in the detection of all defects that tend to nonplussed Captain Shaw. Such a contingency as that deteriorate public health. They, at least, have the practical ought not to be beyond the scope of our precautions. experience of the working success or otherwise of any measure introduced; and a little practice is often worth volumes of theory. In any case, and whatever may be the RABIES IN DOGS. result of the present effort, the Commission of the Dutch THE report from the Select Committee of the House of Senate are to be congratulated on the useful initiative they Lords on Rabies in Dogs was issued on the 10th inst. The have taken. committee believe that while it cannot be absolutely CHOLERA IN ITALY. demonstrated that rabies does not arise spontaneously, yet it is practically proved that subcutaneous inoculation with SINCE cholera first appeared in Calabria early in July, its virus is the only ascertained means of imparting the there has been a slow but steady extension of the disease. disease. The following are the recommendations of the Rocella was at first the principal seat of the outbreak, but committee :-(1) That when rabies is prevalent the muzzle it soon appeared that the cholera which in an early part of should be enforced; (2) that the power of the police the year had existed on the eastern coast of Sicily had broken constable should be extended to authorise the slaughter of out again, Catania having for some time past been implistray dogs; (3) that the symptoms of rabies should be en- cated. Gradually the epidemic has extended over most dorsed on dog licences; (4) that local authorities should parts of Sicily, the provinces of Calabria, Caltanicetta, Syrahave power to order that dogs should wear badges which cuse, Messina, Gergenti, and Palermo being affected. On the may identify their owners ; (5) that in populous places local mainland a number of additional towns on the Calabrian authorities should place restrictions upon dogs generally, coast, such as Palmi, Reggio, and Melita, have also been and especially deal stringently with apparently ownerless attacked. Then came news as to the extension of the -



337 disease to Malta, and to Resina in the bay of Naples. Since Malta was first attacked there has been a daily record of fresh cases, the largest number of attacks having taken place on the 9th inst., when as many as fourteen were returned. Hitherto the troops have remained free from the disease, which is limited to the poorest classes of the population. The last report of cases in Sicily was on the 7th, where fresh cases are stated to have occurred at Messina and Palermp.

MR. GEORGE SMITH of Coalville gave evidence on the 8th inst. before the Select Committee on the Temporary Dwellings Bill. He stated that about 30,000 children lived in vans. and other temporary dwellings in the United Kingdom. These children went without education to an alarming extent,

and theirhomeswere almost totally outside sanitaryinfluence. He doubted if more than 2 per cent. of this number could read and


training. THE

and not




thousand had any




L.A.DY ROBERTS has issued a circular appealing for aid in DRUG BUSINESS. behalf of the ’’ Homes in the Hills" which have been founded AN important case has been lately before the Justiciary for the benefit of the nursing sisters now employed in the. Appeal Court, in the form of an appeal from the Sheriff British military hospitals in India. The appeal is accomCourt, Edinburgh, against the judgment of Sheriff Ruther- panied by a statement explanatory of the scheme forfurd in a prosecution against the Leith Depot Company by supplying nurses for the hospitals. Richard Brembridge, London, registrar under the Pharmacy Acts, 1852 and 1863. The essence of the case was that the WE regret to have to record the death of Gustavus Charles, firm consisted of seven persons carrying on business as Philip Murray, M.D., which occurred on Sunday last at hiswholesale and retail druggists and tea merchants, and residence, 66, Great Cumberland-place, Hyde Park, W. We, advertising themselves as such, while none of them was next week to give some details of the life of the’ hope registered as a chemist and druggist. On their side it was deceased physician. argued that, provided the actual seller and dispenser of the drugs was qualified as a chemist, the law was satisfied, and MR. MARK HOVELL has been appointed to accompany th& that the House of Lords had given a decision in this sense. The Crown Prince of Germany to Scotland, and to carry out th& judges expressed their agreement with the judgment of the treatment prescribed by Dr. Morell Mackenzie. House of Lords. Lord Justice Clerk said the Act did not apply to partnerships, and he should very much doubt whether a member of the Corporation could be held responREPORT sible, even if the person who carried on the business was OF not qualified. But he reserved his opinion on that point. Lord Young was of the same opinion, and rather feelingly argued that such companies were in the interest of the ON THE public, as supplying drugs at more practical prices than were the rule of the trade. -

The Lancet S anitary Commission



PROFESSOR SIMON SCHWENDENER. MoBB than half of the water supply of London is drawn THIs able worker in the field of vegetable physiology comthe Thames. Formerly a great deal was drawn from of at at from a series academic Zurich, triumphs pletes long a and at his at at Berlin Munich, Basel, Tubingen, by appoint- foully polluted area in the heart of the metropolis, but., ment to the post of Rector in the last named-school, where warned by the lessons taught by successive visitations of since 1878 he has filled with muh distinction the chair of cholera, the intakes were removed to places above the tidal Physiological Botany. He had already laid the cause of portion of the river. The five great Thames companiesscience in Berlin under deep obligations as Director of the draw their supply just above Hampton and below Sunbury, Botanic Institute and of the University Botanic Garden. while the East London Company is permitted to draw a. Switzerland, of which he is a native, is justly proud of the further quantity not exceeding 10,000,000 gallons a day high honour conferred on her son, and contrasts the cos- from a spot a little higher up, but below Walton. Altogether mopolitan spirit of German science with the exclusiveness 110,000,000 gallons a day may be drawn from the river. now showing itself in Russian academic circles. During last May the quantity actually taken was 86,795,375 gallons. The whole of it is filtered and stored in covered reservoirs before delivery. FOREIGN UNIVERSITY INTELLIGENCE. The question which we have to consider is whether this Cordova (Argentine Republic).-Dr. Johannes Frenzel, of water, collected and treated with due care, is fit for the. Berlin, who is well known for his researches made at Naples supply of the metropolis, or whether it is exposed to such under Professor Dohrn, has been appointed Professor of serious pollution, either continuous or occasional and acciZoology, with charge of the Zoological Museum. An eminent dental, as to make it necessary to seek for a new supply. It German, Dr. Burmeister, who was formerly a professor in is hardly necessary to remind our readers that the question is no new one. It has been keenly debated for a long time, Halle, is at the head of the University of Cordova. Ghent.-Dr. la Housse of Antwerp has been appointed and about twenty years ago a vast mass of new evidence Professor of Human Physiology in succession to M. Mac Leod, was collected. Eminent scientific men took opposite sides who has been appointed to the Botanical chair vacated by in the controversy, and supported their views with experiments and arguments which have added greatly to our the death of the late Professor Kickx. and have stocked no small space in our libraries. Jena.--Dr. August Gartner has been appointed Ordinary knowledge, Dr. Frankland, to whom we owe our most trustProfessor of Hygiene and Medical Jurisprudence. worthy method of water analysis, was then, and is, we JfoKf’e?’.—M. Hamelin, agrégé, has been appointed to believe, still foremost among those who consider the present the Professorship of Therapeutics and Materia Medica. supply dangerous, while Dr. Tidy, with the able assistance M. Cavalier, Professor of -11ntal Diseases, has been granted of Mr. Crookes and Professor Odling, have uniformly main-. tained the opposite view. It would be hopeless to attempt leave of absence for a year. even the barest sketch of the literature of the subject; it is enough to mention that the matured views of Dr. FrankPROFESSOR VIRCHOW, immediately on the close of the land were stated in the sixth report of the Rivers Pollution summer session, repaired to Gorlitz for the purpose of ex- Commission (1874), which is a model of sound scientificamining the excavations now being made in that district. work, while the case for .the water companies was ably pre-