Concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu in pristine wetlands of the Russian Arctic

Concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu in pristine wetlands of the Russian Arctic

Marine I'olhaion Bulletin, Vol. 35. Nos 7-12, pp. 242-251, 1997 Pergamon PII: S0025-326X(97)00116-6 ~(~ 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reser...

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Marine I'olhaion Bulletin, Vol. 35. Nos 7-12, pp. 242-251, 1997

Pergamon

PII: S0025-326X(97)00116-6

~(~ 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved Printed in Great Britain 11{125-326X/97$17.0(1+[).Oll

Concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu in Pristine Wetlands of the Russian Arctic A. V. ZHULIDOV*, J. V. HEADLEYt¶, R. D. ROBARTSt, A. M. NIKANOROV*, A. A. ISCHENKO~ and M. A. CHAMP§ *Hydrochemical Institute, Federal Services of Russia for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, Stachki Ave. I98, Rostov-on-Don 344104, Russia ~fNational Hydrology Research Institute, l l Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 3H5, Canada ~Rostov University, Faculty of Geology and Geography, Zorge Street 40, Rostov-on-Don 344104, Russia §Texas A & M University, P.O. Box 2439, Falls Church, VA 22042, USA

Background concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu were studied for wetlands from pristine regions of the Russian Arctic: Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, Vrangel Island, Arctic deserts and tundra of the North Taimyr Peninsula, Byrranga Mountainous Area, tundra zone of MidSiberia, North-East Siberia, Far North-East, and Amguemo-Anadyr Mountainous Area. These wetland regions were known to be relatively remote and isolated, with little human population and no local industry. Samples were collected during the period 1976-1993 and included: (a) snow and thaw water, (b) particulate matter, (c) bottom sediments, (d) hydric organo-minerai deposits and hydric soils, (e) polygonal bog peat and sedge-moss peat. Observed ranges for the background concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu in water were 0.001--0.15, 0.02-0.36, 0.05-2.9 and 0.23-6.2 gg1-1 respectively. For (b)--(e) the corresponding values were [0.04-0.46; 1.3-41; 8.6-190; 0.7--63]; [0.05 0.99; 1.5-49; 2.5-153; 2.4-55]; [0.05--0.96; 1.7-44; 2.2-154; 2.0-82] and [0.03-0.83; 1.3-31; 2.1-124; 1.7--68] mg kg -1, dry wt, respectively. Although full assessment of the pristine nature of the wetlands was not possible due to the limited data available, the observed metal concentrations reflect natural geochemical background levels and influence from localized minor ore-deposits present for some regions. In general, there was no evidence of impact from remote industrial regions of the Russian Arctic. © 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved

Investigations in the Arctic of the former USSR have been carried out primarily to support geological surveys, exploration of mineral deposits and the development of military bases in the region. Some investigations have studied the influence of the harsh weather on conditions across vast regions. In the 19701980s in the former USSR some studies were conducted ¶ C o r r e s p o n d i n g a u t h o r . Tel: +3(16 975 5746: fax: + 3 0 6 975 5143: email: h e a d l e y j @ n h r i s v . n h r c . s k . d o e . c a

242

in parallel with other countries on chemical oceanography with assessment of the mixing zones of river and seawaters in the delta region of large Arctic rivers (Morozov et al., 1974; Micklin, 1981; Moore, 1981, 1983; Rahn, 1981; Danielsson and Westerlund, 1983; Mart et al., 1983; Romankevich, 1984; Yeats, 1988; Jones et al., 1990; Martin and Windom, 1991; Muir et aL, 1992; Martin et al., 1993; Gordeev and Sidorov, 1993; Letolle et al., 1993; Kravtsov et al., 1994; Dai and Martin, 1995). Despite this level of activity, there has been no critical assessment of the levels of trace metals in wetlands of the former Soviet (Russian) Arctic. The biogeochemistry of wetlands of the Russian Arctic remains an area which is essentially unexplored. This lack of study has created a void in reliable data on wetlands, and makes it difficult to assess their role in regulating organo-mineral colloids and humic substances discharged to Arctic rivers. Indeed, published chemical data on the Russian Arctic is only now becoming available in the scientific literature (Nikanorov and Zhulidov, 1991; Telang et al., 1991). In the present investigation we present a first attempt to assess the levels of heavy metals, Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu in natural compartments of wetlands in pristine regions of the Russian Arctic. The metals in question were selected for this publication based on the availability of reliable data to the authors. For vast areas in the Arctic, access to pristine wetlands was hampered by the remoteness of the regions and limited the data available for this investigation. However, the results of this work will demonstrate that the observed concentrations of heavy metals in the pristine wetlands investigated are dependent on the region of study and reflect a preponderance of the localized biogeochemical background levels. The objective of this work was thus to establish a set of base-line data for pristine wetlands in the Russian Arctic. This base-line data is intended to facilitate the comparison of the concentrations of metals in wetlands in pristine areas with those found near anthropogenic sources.

Volume 35/Numbers 7-12/July-December 1997 The term Arctic is used here to represent the Northern Pre-Polar area including the Arctic Ocean, the Arctic shelf with adjacent seas and islands, and the continental outskirts of Euro-Asia. The Russian Arctic is enclosed in the area between 32 ° 04' 35" east longitude and 168 ° 49' 30" west longitude (except for the islands of Spitsbergen Archipelago). In the south, the Russian Arctic goes along the 10°C isotherm, which is close to the southern boundary of the tundra at the plains. The tundra and Arctic desert in East Siberia and Far East areas of the Russian Arctic spread further south, and thus the southern boundary of the Arctic in Russian East Siberia and the Far East is not limited to the Polar Circle (see Fig. 1). In this work, the Russian Arctic has been subdivided into the following physico-geographical zones, mountainous regions and provinces: (1) the Arctic Island area of the Russian Arctic, (2) the North Kola (Murmansk) Arctic area, (3) the tundra - forest-tundra zone of the Russian Plain, (4) the Polar-Ural area, (5) the tundra zone of West Siberia, (6) the Arctic deserts and tundra of Mid-Siberia, (7) the tundra of North-East Siberia, and (8) the Arctic area of Far North-East Russia. Areas for which no data were available are excluded in this review. The latter were primarily wetlands in the Arctic Island area. The biogeography of the wetlands in the Russian Arctic have been described elsewhere (Zhulidov et al., in press), and thus will not be discussed in detail here. For this investigation, data for pristine wetlands was available for zones (1), (6), (7) and (8). The levels of contaminants reported for contaminated wetlands in the other zones are discussed in the following paper of this volume (Zhulidov et al., 1996). The US Fish and Wildlife Service Classification of wetlands and deep water habitats was used to classify the wetlands in Russia (Cowardin et al., 1979).

Methodology and Procedures Sampling and analysis Field investigations were carried out during the summer seasons of 1976-1993 in non-cultivated regions of the Russian Arctic where there were no evident localized anthropogenic sources of metal contaminants. As shown in Fig. 1, the sampling sites were located in the regions: Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, Vrangel Island, Arctic deserts and tundra of the North Taimyr Peninsula, Byrranga Mountainous Area, tundra zone of Mid-Siberia, North-East Siberia, Far North-East, and Amguemo-Anadyr Mountainous Area. Sample types included: snow and thaw water (total dissolved concentration, < 0.45 gin), particulate matter (> 0.45 gm), bottom sediments, hydric organo-mineral deposits, hydric soils, polygonal bog peat and sedge-moss peat. All the samples were collected near the surface of the wetlands (0-5 cm) using pre-cleaned (with acid) tefloncoated equipment and stored in acid-cleaned polypropylene bottles. A volume of up to 2 litres of water

Fig. 1 Map of location of sampling sites of pristine wetlands investigatedin the Russian Arctic, 1976--1993. was filtered within 0.5-2 h of collection using acidcleaned polycarbonate Nuclepore filters (0.4 gm, diameter 47 mm). The filtered water samples were acidified to pH 2 with ultrapure HC1. Transportation of samples to the laboratory was carried out in double plastic containers using hermetic film, at a temperature of 4-10°C. The samples (except water) were kept in pure double hermetic soldered plastic containers up to 19931995. Total dissolved Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu were preconcentrated using solvent extraction of the chelates formed with a mixture of complexes (ammonium pyrrolidine ditiocarbamate and diethylammonium diethyl dithiocarbamate) using l,l,2-trichloro-l,2,2,trifluoroethane, followed by back-extraction into nitric acid (Danielsson et al., 1982; Martin et al., 1993; Dai and Martin, 1995). Total dissolved metal concentrations were measured using graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS; Perkin Elmer 3030, HGA-500). Filters containing particulate matter, bottom sediments, hydric organo-mineral deposits, hydric soils, polygonal bog peat and sedge-moss peat were dried at 80°C. For these latter filter samples, the total trace-metal concentrations were also determined by GFAAS after digesting with a mixture of HNO3-HFHCLO4. For some determinations, colorimetry and neutron activation was employed (Nikanorov and Zhulidov, 1991). Samples of water were analysed in a Class-100 clean room. The accuracy and precision of the measurements were assessed using reference standards (Riverine Water Reference Material for Trace Metals; National Research Council of Canada; and Standards of hydric soils and polygonal bog peat, Hydrochemical Institute, Russia).

Results and Discussion In the following discussion, a description of the respective zones is given, followed by a discussion of the available data on the concentrations of heavy metals in wetland ecosystems. The trends observed are illustrated in Figs 2-5, and summarized in Tables 1-8. The results 243

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Volume 35/Numbers 7-12/July-December 1997

will show that for most of the wetlands the concentrations of the metals were below the national levels. However, in the case of Cu, the levels in wetland surface waters exceeded the NWQS in a number of cases. The National Water Quality Standards in Russia (NWQS) for heavy metals in surface freshwater are the following in (~tg 1-1): Cadmium 1; Lead 30; Zinc 10 and Copper 1; (Russian Federation Surface Water Annual, 1994, Obninsk, VNIGMI-MTD). Zone 1. Arctic island area of the Russian Arctic This area includes the archipelagos and separate islands (Zemlya Frantza Iosifa, Novaya Zemlya, Severnaya Zemlya, the Novosibirskie Islands, the Islands of Victoria, Beckette, Vrangel, Medvezhy, Vize, the Arctic Institute, and other islands) covering an area of 135 500 km 2. These islands lie within the vast area of the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas (15 ° latitude and 160° longitude). They have characteristic structuraltectonic and geographic relationships with the continental outskirts. For this reason, isolated groups of islands can be included in the adjacent continental areas: the West Siberian Plain, the Urals, and Central Siberia. The islands form a unique physico-geographic region with a common influence from the Arctic climate. The Arctic Islands are subdivided into provinces corresponding to island archipelagos and large islands. The chemistry of the wetlands of the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago has not been well studied. The available data for metal concentrations in wetlands in this region are summarized in Table 1 and Figs 2-5. There was no evidence of impact from anthropogenic industrial or atmospheric contaminants in the wetlands of this region of the Russian Arctic.

Table 1 was compiled from samples collected for wetlands of the following areas of the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago: the Bolshevik Island Cape Neupokoyeva and Cape Vaygatch. 'X' is the mean value, 'SD' is the standard deviation and 'n' is the number of determinations. For vast areas in this region of the Russian Arctic, access to pristine wetlands was hampered by the remoteness of the regions and limited the data available during this investigation. Vrangel and Gerald Islands. The Arctic desert zone includes the Vrangel and Gerald Islands. Both islands are located at the Tchukotka Sea shelf. The island relief is diverse, consisting of coastal plains, plateaus, and mountains with altitudes up to 1096 m. The slopes are covered by solifluction terraces, and runoff trenches. At the Vrangel Island there are 101 glaciers covering a total area 3.5 km 2 (ice volume 0.06 km 3) with estimates of more than I 1 km 3 of underground ice (Water Resources of the USSR and Their Use, 1987). Uniform and polygonal bogs are found in this area. The uniform bogs at the Vrangel Island are primarily scrub-sedgeSphagnum bogs. All the territory of the Vrangel Island is a reserve, in which the ecosystems can be considered to be pristine with no detectable exposure to anthropogenic pollution of heavy metals. The background levels of metal concentrations in riverine and palustrine wetlands at the Vrangel Island are summarized in Table 2 and Figs 2-5. There was no evidence of anthropogenic contamination in the wetlands of this region of the Russian Arctic. Zone 6. Arctic deserts and tundra of Mid-Siberia The Mid-Siberian Arctic includes the Taimyr Peninsula and North Siberian Lowland. The Taimyr Peninsula lies between 74 ° and 78 ° of the northern

TABLE 1 Metal concentrations in wetlands of the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago. (lag 1- i for water, and mg kg- 1 for other matrices, dry wt). Data reported: 1981, 1984, 1986-88, 1993 (Zhulidov et al., in press with changes). Wetlands Matrices analysed

Cadmium Snow and thaw water Hydric organo-mineral deposits Polygonal bog peat Lead Snow and thaw water Hydric organo-mineral deposits Polygonal bog peat Zinc' Snow and thaw water Hydric organo-mineral deposits Polygonal bog peat Copper Snow and thaw water Hydric organo-mineral deposits Polygonal bog peat

n

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0.003 0.194-0.11 0.174-0.09

-0.05q).42 0.04-0.38

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-1.9-24.7 1.6-19.6

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0.05 294-26 354-23

-4.8-91 6.8-74

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-2.4-56 2.0-62

245

Marine Pollution Bulletin

TABLE 2 Metal concentrations in riverine and palustrine wetlands at the Vrangel Island (mg k g - l dry wt). Data from 1977, 1989 (Zhulidov et al., in press with changes).

Wetlands Compartments analysed

n

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0.07-0.85 0.04--0.53

Lead Hydric soils Sedge-moss peat

12 11

134-8 94-8

2.2-25.6 2.3-31

Zinc Hydric soils Sedge-moss

12 11

42+32 42+28

4.8-1 t 5 6. 1-91

Copper Hydric soils Sedge-moss peat

12 11

30-1-17 274-18

4.0-53 4.8~53

latitude, and thus falls within the arctic basin islands. The Taimyr Peninsula is strongly influenced by the Laptev and Kara seas, resulting in an extreme Arctic climate and vast landscapes of Arctic deserts and tundra. The Arctic deserts extend to 76o30 ' latitude. This zone includes the isolated regions of the North Taimyr and Mountain Byrranga provinces. The landscapes of these provinces are primarily arctic deserts, arctic tundra, and bogs (uniform and polygonal). Metal concentrations in wetlands in the region of arctic deserts and tundra of the North Taimyr Province

(the Taimyr Peninsula) are summarized in Table 3 and Figs 2-5. The data in Table 3 is given for samples collected in wetlands of the following areas of Arctic deserts and tundra of the North-East Province (the Taimyr Peninsula): northern and north-western coast of Cape Tcheluskin, central areas of Cape Tcheluskin, and the western shore of Faddey Bay. As confirmed by our investigation, there was no evidence of anthropogenic contamination in the wetlands of this region.

TABLE 3 Metal concentrations in the wetlands of the Arctic deserts and tundra of the North Taimyr Province (the Taimyr Peninsula) (lag 1- t for water and mg kg -1 for the rest of compartments, dry wt). Data from: 1981, 1984, 1986-92 (Zhulidov et aL, in press with changes).

Wetlands Compartments analysed

n

X+SD

Minimum-Maximum values

Cadmium Water Particulate matter Bottom sediments Hydric soils Polygonal bog peat

3 8 32 26 21

0.005+0.005 0.224-0.14 0.324-0.18 0.29+0.17 0.25+0.15

0.001-0.010 0.05-0.46 0.05-0.85 0.05-0.78 0.04-0.55

Lead Water Particulate matter Bottom sediments Hydric soils Polygonal bog peat

3 8 32 26 21

0.08+0.07 154-7 10+9 94-6 5.84-3.9

0.03-0.16 1.7-24.9 1.8-45 ! .7-32 1.4-16.7

Zinc Water Particulate matter Bottom sediments Hydric soils Polygonal bog peat

3 8 32 26 21

0.084-0.04 464-31 274-22 304-25 32+26

0.05-0.12 10.2-110 3.5-86 4.4-82 5.5-95

Copper Water Particulate matter Bottom sediments Hydric soils Polygonal bog peat

3 8 32 26 21

0.64+0.29 214-21 174-10 16+ 11 144-10

0.31-0.83 3.6--63 2.6-37 2.0-43 1.7-36

246

Volume 35/Numbers 7-12/July-December 1997

Byrranga Province. The Byrranga Province is within the tundra zone of Mid-Siberia in the north of the Taimyr Peninsula. From west to east the Byrranga stretches out for 1000 kin. The northern part of the Byrranga is denudated in contrast to the plateau of the central region with steep ridges in the south. There are coal deposits (about 700 billion tonnes) in the Byrranga territory. Ores containing molybdenum, tungsten, lead, zinc, mercury, arsenic, etc. are widely distributed. This remote region is sparsely populated, and consequently the wetlands, primarily polygonal bogs, have not been well studied. However, the wetlands are considered to be close to pristine conditions. Metal concentrations in riverine and lacustrine wetlands of the Byrranga Province are summarized in Table 4 and Figs 2-5. The data presented in Table 4 are from samples collected in riverine and lacustrine wetlands in the following Byrranga areas: the Piasina River (downstream), the colonies of Dixon, Makarov and Mihailov; Bereg Haritona Lapteva (the Vostotchnaya station), the Nizhnaya Taimyra River (downstream), the Faddey Bay (southern coast) coast in the area adjacent to Cape Dik and the Maria Prontchischeva Harbour, and Lake Taimyr (northern side). In general, the water concentrations of metals in wetlands in this zone were at background levels, with values below the Russian National standards except for the concentrations of copper (Nikanorov and Zhulidov,

1991; Russian Federation Surface Water Annual, 1994). It is suspected that the high levels of copper in the water and bottom sediments in this region are likely due to the local geochemical background. The tundra zone of Mid-Siberia. The tundra zone of Mid-Siberia is divided into four provinces: the YeniseyHatanga, the Anabar-Olenek, the province of the Prontchischev and Tchekanovsky Ridges, and the Lena River delta province. In general, the Mid-Siberia tundra zone is poorly developed. There are numerous lakes in the flatland regions of the tundra, some of which occupy 30% of the total available area. Polygonal Hypnum bogs are also common in the Arctic tundra of this region. The boggy sections are covered in general by dwarf shrubs and are considered to be pristine. A summary of the metal concentrations in riverine, and lacustrine wetlands from this zone is given in Table 5, and Figs 2-5. The data presented in Table 5 are from samples collected from riverine, lacustrine, and palustrine wetlands of the same areas of the tundra zone of MidSiberia: Lake Taimyr (the southern coast), Lake Kungasalakh, Lake Syrutaturku, Lake Portniagino, Lake Kokora, and Lake Labaz; the rivers Pura (the colony of Pura), Piasina (the colony of Agapa and the area where the Dudypta River flows into the Agapa); the Hatanga Bay (west and south-east coast, south-east coast of the Kozhevnikov Harbour); the Hatanga River (mouth, the colony of Starorybie); the Nordvik

TABLE 4 Metal concentrations in riverine and lacustrine wetlands in the Byrranga Mountainous Area (~tg 1- l for water and mg k g - t for the rest of compartments, dry wt). Data from: 1978, 1984, 1990, 1993 (Zhulidov et al., in press with changes).

Wetlands Minimum-Maximum values

Compartments analysed

n

X+SD

Cadmium Water Particulate matter Bottom sediments Hydric soils Polygonal bog peat

15 27 28 25 22

0.05+0.04 0.21 +0.11 0.314-0.19 0.314-0.21 0.254-0.15

0.003-0.15 0.064).43 0.06-0.76 0.07-0.92 0.064).67

Lead Water Particulate matter Bottom sediments Hydric soils Polygonal bog peat

15 23 28 25 22

0.14+0.09 144-11 7.9+6.3 11+9 6.64-4.7

0.034). 36 2.741 1.7-30 1.6-39 1.5-20

Zinc Water Particulate matter Bottom sediments Hydric soils Polygonal bog peat

15 23 28 25 22

0.64+0.71 694-46 304-25 344-26 30-/-23

0.06-2.9 9.2-171 3.8-122 4.1-109 4.9-90

Copper Water Particulate matter Bottom sediments Hydric soils Polygonal bog peat

15 23 28 25 22

2.64-2.2 224-13 21+1 ! 23-1-13 154-13

0.25-6.2 4.3-50 2.34-40 2.4-45 2.5-53

247

Marine Pollution Bulletin TABLE 5 Metal concentrations in riveriue, lacustrine, and palustrine wetlands in the Mid-Siberia tundra zone (lag 1- t for water and mg k g - 1 for the rest of compartments). Data from: 1978, 1984, 198692 (Zhulidov et aL, in press with changes).

Wetlands Compartments analysed

n

X4-SD

Minimum-Maximum values

Cadmium Water Particulate matter Bottom sediments Hydrie soils Polygonal bog peat

24 36 30 29 29

0.0344-0.028 0.174-0.07 0.254-0.14 0.224-0.14 0.234-0.18

0.001-0.12 0.05--0.31 0.05-0.49 0.05--0.55 0.04-43.83

Lead Water Particulate matter Bottom sediments Hydric soils Polygonal bog peat

24 36 30 29 29

0.124-0.09 9.14- 8.7 8.24-6.4 I 14-7 7.54-5.2

0.02--0.32 1.3-38 1.5-25 1.8-26 1.3-20

Zinc Water Particulate matter Bottom sediments Hydric soils Polygonal bog peat

24 31 29 29 29

0.864-0.37 414-18 29+19 274-20 324-19

0.23-2.8 8.6-105 2.5-126 2.2-129 2.1-104

Copper Water Particulate matter Bottom sediments Hydric soils Polygonal bog peat

24 34 30 29 29

1.44-0.9 144-6.0 125:5.1 164-7.1 124-8.3

0.23-5.1 1.3--47 2.5-34 2.2--47 2.1--42

Harbour (the southern coast); the Anabar River (mouth); and the Olenek Bay (coast, the Olenek mouth, the colony of Ust-Olenek). Zone 7. Tundra of North-East Siberia

The tundra of North-East Siberia occupies a strip (from 73 ° to 69 °) of the coastal mainland, 50-80 m above sea level. Within the mainland plain there are wide river valleys up to 40 m deep, small rivers, and alasy (thermokarst depressions with meadow vegetation and a lake in the centre). This zone is unique because the mountain deserts and tundra of the Verhoyansk and Anuy ridges are distributed far to the south, outside the Polar Circle. In this zone, uniform and polygonal bogs are widely distributed in river valleys and along the lake shores. The tundra zone includes three provinces: Nizhneyanskaya, Nizhneindigirskaya and Nizhnealazeyskaya. These regions are poorly developed with a population density of less than 1 person km -2 in small colonies along the river valleys. Deer breeding, hunting, and fishing are the primary activities and the wetlands in this region are considered to be pristine, as indicated in Table 6 and Figs 2-5. The data presented in Table 6 are for samples collected in the riverine and lacustrine wetlands in the following tundra areas of North-East Siberia: the eastern coast of the Buor-Haya Bay, the Omoloy River (downstream and the colony of Hayar), the 248

Yana River Delta (the colonies of Nizhneyansk, Systangnakh, Kuogastakh and Ust Yansk), the eastern coast of the Abeliakhskaya Bay, Lake Bustakh, the southern coast of the Hromskaya Bay, the Indigirka River Delta (the colonies of Tabor, Primorsky, Hatystakh, Poliarnoye, and Tchokurdakh), the Alazeya River (downstream from the colony of Lodashkino), the Kolyma River (downstream, the colonies of Mihalkino, Kray Lesa, Pohodsk, Zeleny Mys, and Nizhnekolymsk), and the mainland coast of the East-Siberian Sea (the colonies of Ambartchik, Medvezhka, and Krestovoye). In general, the water concentrations of metals in wetlands in this zone were at background levels, with values below the Russian National standards, except for the concentrations of zinc and copper (Nikanorov and Zhulidov, 1991; Russian Federation Surface Water Annual, 1994). Zone 8. Arctic area of Far North-East Tundra zone of Far North-East. The tundra zone of

the Far North-East is located in the territory of the Anadyrsko-Penzhinskaya Lowland and extends for more than 1000 km from the coast of Anadyr Bay to the Penzhinskaya Bay of the Sea of Okhotsk. This area is characterized by wide terraced valleys, and moraine hills, with lakes and bogs covering up to 50% of the tundra zone area. Much of the cedar tundra is boggy, particularly in the lowlands. Wetlands in this region have not been well studied. This is due primarily to

Volume 35/Numbers 7-12/July-December 1997 TABLE 6 Metal concentrations in riverine, lacustrine and palustrine wetlands in the North-East Siberia tundra zone (mg kg-1, dry wt). Data from: 1976, 1979-80, 1983, 1987, 1989 and 1992 (Zhulidov et al., in press with changes).

Wetlands Compartments analysed

n

X4-SD

Minimum-Maximum values

Cadmium Particulate matter Bottom sediments Hydric soils Sedge-moss peat

35 54 47 21

0.14+0.065 0.30-1-0.11 0.30-t-0.10 0.10+0.006

0.04--0.38 0.05-0.91 0.05-0.81 0.03-0.48

Lead Particulate matter Bottom sediments Hydric soils Sedge-moss peat

31 51 45 18

12.2-l-5.1 15.44-8.1 10.14-6.2 9.14-4.2

4.1-32 1.749 1.84-44 1.9-23

Zinc Particulate matter Bottom sediments Hydric soils Sedge-moss peat

30 52 47 18

51 +27 42-t-18 354-21 304-20

15-135 3.9-136 4.4-137 4.0--96

Copper Particulate matter Bottom sediments Hydric soils Sedge-moss peat

35 54 47 18

9.14-3.6 13-t-5 16-1-5 194-10

0.7-38 2.4-38 2.7--63 3.0-62

difficult access to the area. The only small airport in the colony of Anadyr is often closed due to weather conditions, and travel by automobile or rail is not available. This area is sparsely populated with a population density of less than 2 persons km -z. Metal concentrations in riverine, lacustrine, and palustrine wetlands of the Far North-East tundra zone are summarized in Table 7 and Figs 2-5. The data presented in Table 7 are for samples collected in riverine, lacustrine, and palustrine wetlands of the following areas of the Far North-East tundra zone: the southern coast of the Anadyr firth (the territory located between the colony of Anadyr to the Geka Cape), Lake Krasnoye (the northern coast, the colony of Krasneno), the Anadyr River (the colony of Tanurer), and the Penzhina River (the colonies of Slautnoye and Kamenskoye).

Krasnormeysky and Komsomolsky. The average population density in this region is less than 1 person km-2. Metal concentrations in riverine, lacustrine, and palustrine wetlands of the Amguemo-Anadyrskaya Mountainous Area of the Far North-East are summarized in Table 8 and Figs 2-5. The data presented in Table 8 are from samples collected in riverine, lacustrine, and palustrine wetlands of the following parts of the Amguemo-Anadyrskaya Mountainous Area of the Far North-East: the Tchukotka Sea coast near the Schmidt Cape, the colonies of Leningradsky and Polarny, the Paliavam River (the colony of Promezhutotchny), and the Anadyr River (the colony of Lamutzkoye). As confirmed by our investigation, there was no evidence of anthropogenic pollution in this region of the Russian Arctic.

Amguemo-Anadyr Mountainous Area. The Amguemo--Anadyrskaya Mountainous Area is located to the west of the Anadyrsko-Penzhinskaya Depression, between the Far North-East and North-East Siberia. This region is located at the border of the Arctic and Subarctic climatic belts, and is influenced by the Pacific, Arctic, and continental air masses. Uniform and polygonal bogs are present in the north of the region (at the Tchukotaka Sea coast). The uniform bogs are primarily scrub-sedge-Sphagnum bogs. The wetlands of this remote area have been poorly studied. The small airport in the colony of Pevek is often closed due to weather conditions, and there is only a single road connecting the colonies: Yanranay, Apapelgin, Pevek,

Condu~on This work is considered as a preliminary investigation since no data was possible for major regions of the Arctic Island area, due to the difficult access to remote regions. Follow-up investigations are therefore warranted to confirm the following tentative conclusions. For the zones sampled we conclude that wetlands for vast areas of the Russian Arctic appear to be pristine. Although the Russian Arctic has several large smelters located across it (for example in the Kola Peninsula and in the Taimyr Region - Norilsk - inside the Arctic Circle), no incremental increases in the concentration of heavy metals in pristine wetlands could be linked to 249

Marine Pollution Bulletin TABLE 7 Metal concentrations in riverine, lacustrine and palustrine wetlands at the territory of the Far North-East tundra zone (mg k g - l , dry wt). Data from: 1976, 1979, 1983 and 1992 (Zhulidov et al., in press with changes). Wetlands Compartments analysed

n

X4-SD

Minimum-Maximum values

Cadmium Particulate matter Bottom sediments Hydric soils Sedge-moss peat

32 29 30 19

0.15±0.072 0.32+0.15 0.41±0.14 0.184-0.07

0.04~.36 0.05-0.82 0.07-0.93 0.05-0.41

Lead Particulate matter Bottom sediments Hydric soils Sedge-moss peat

32 27 30 19

8+3 12-1-7 94-5 64-4

1.8-26 2.0-39 2.2-38 1.8-20

Zitw Particulate matter Bottom sediments Hydric soils Sedge-moss peat

29 29 30 19

704-39 404-25 504-22 554-26

11-183 4.6-145 5.3-148 5.5-124

Copper Particulate matter Bottom sediments Hydric soils Sedge-moss peat

32 29 30 19

154-8.1 244-10 30± 12 23±15

1.3-55 3.3-55 3.8-76 3.5~58

TABLE 8 Metal concentrations in riverine, lacustrine and palustrine wetlands in the Amguemo-Anadyrskaya Mountainous Area of the Far North-East (rag kg-1, dry wt). Data from: 1976, 1979, 1983 and 1992 (Zhulidov et aL, in press with changes). Wetlands Compartments analysed

n

X+SD

Minimum-Maximum values

Cadmium Particulate matter Bottom sediments Hydric soils Sedge-moss peat

15 16 18 16

0.18+0.10 0.45-1-0.23 0.52+0.24 0.18+0.10

0.07-0.41 0.08-0.99 0.09-0.96 0.05-0.51

Lead Particulate matter Bottom sediments Hydric soils Sedge-moss peat

15 16 18 16

10+5 9+6 94-7 5.24-2.3

2.0-32 1.9-34 2.0-35 1.6-18

Zinc Particulate matter Bottom sediments Hydric soils Sedge-moss peat

14 16 18 16

784-50 45+28 54+36 544-22

20-190 4.5-153 5.6-154 5.0-118

Copper Particulate matter Bottom sediments Hydric soils Sedge-moss peat

15 16 18 16

12+7.2 204-9.3 33± ! 5 19± I 1

1.5-52 3.4-44 3.6-82 3.1-59

these smelters. Atmospheric transport cannot be ruled out, however, based on the data reported here, since the buffering capacity of natural wetlands to eliminate heavy metals is a subject not fully understood in the scientific literature. There was thus little or no evidence of impact from remote industrial centres within or outside the Russian Arctic. In general where mineral 250

ores were present, the background levels were elevated, sometimes exceeding the National standards for water. The low levels of heavy metals in some cases may be linked to the capacity of wetlands to reduce metals and other contaminants, along with possible influence of seasonal variations in the partitioning of metals following storm and flood events. Further study is

Volume 35/Numbers 7-12/July-December 1997

warranted to determine whether the low levels are linked to the buffering capacity of wetlands and seasonal variations in metal concentrations in wetlands.

This work was carried out within the framework of the former USSR (Russia) USA co-operation in the field of environmental protection (Project 02.02.14). This work was funded in part under the CanadaRussia Science and Technology Bilateral Programme, with financial assistance from the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada. Financial support was provided by the National Hydrology Research Institute, Environment Canada, Kajima Foundation of Japan, Hydrochemical Institute, Federal Service of Russia for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring and Ministry of Geology, Former USSR. Dr Gordcev, Institute of Oceanology Russian Academy of Sciences provided useful consultations. Philip Gregory, Kerry Peru, Brenda Headley, National Hydrology Research Institute and Olga Zhulidova, Hydrochemical Institute, provided technical assistance. Administrative support provided by Nicole Jasmin, Environment Canada, is gratefully acknowledged.

Cowardin, L. M., Carter, V., Golet, F. C. and Loroe, E. T. (1979) Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. FWS 30BS-79/31, Washington D.C., 131 pp. Dai, M. H. and Martin, J. M. (1995) First data on trace metal level and behaviour in two major Arctic river-estuarine systems (Ob and Yenisey) and in the adjacent Kara Sea, Russia. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 131, 127-141. Danielsson, L. G. and Westedund, S. (1983) Trace metals in the Arctic Ocean. In Trace Metals in Sea Water, eds C. S. Wong, E. Boyle, K. W. Bruland, J. D. Butron and E. D. Goldberg, pp. 85-96. Plenum, New York. Danielsson, L. G., Magnusson, B., Westerlund, S. and Zhang, K. (1982) Trace metal determination in estuarine waters by electrothermal AAS after extraction of dithiocarbamate complexes into freon. Anal. Chim. Acta 144, 183-188. Gordeev, V. V. and Sidorov, I. S. (1993) Concentrations of major elements and their outflow into the Laptev Sea by the Lena River. Marine Chemistry 43, 33--45. Jones, E. P., Nelson, D. M. and Treguer, P. (1990) Chemical oceanography. In Polar Oceanography. Part B: Chemistry, Biology, and Geology, eds O. Walker and J. R. Smith, pp. 407-432. Academic Press, San Diego. Kravtsov, V. A., Gordeev, V. V. and Pashkina, V. I. (1994) Dissolved heavy metals in Kara Sea waters (In Russian). Okeanologiya 34, 673-680. Letolle, R., Martin, J. M., Thomas, A. J., Gordeev, V. V., Gusarova, S. and Sidorov, I. (1993) 180 abundance and dissolved silicate in the lena delta and Laptev Sea (Russia). Mar. Chem. 43, 47-64. Mart, L., Nurnberg, H.W. and Dyrssen, D. (1983) Low level determination of trace metals in Arctic seawater and snow by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. In Trace Metals in Sea Water, eds C. S. Wong, E. Boyle, K. W. Bruland, J. D. Butron and E. D. Goldberg, pp. 113-129. Plenum, New York.

Martin, J. M., Guan, D. M., Elbaz-Poulichet, F., Thomas, A. J. and Gordeev, V. V. (1993) Preliminary assessment of the distributions of some trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn) in a pristine aquatic environment: the Lena River estuary (Russia). Mar. Chem. 43, 185-199. Martin, J. M. and Windom, H. (1991) Present and future roles of ocean margins in regulating marine biogeochemical cycles of trace elements. In Ocean Margin Process in Global Change, eds R. F. C. Mantoura, J. M. Martin and R. Wollast, pp. 45--67. Wiley, New York. Micklin, P. P. (1981) A preliminary system analysis of impacts of proposed Soviet river diversion on the Arctic sea ice. EOS 62, 488493. Moore, R. M. (1981) Oceanographic distributions of zinc, cadmium, copper and aluminium in waters of the central Arctic. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 45, 2475-2482. Moore, R. M. (1983) Oceanographic distributions of zinc, cadmium, copper and aluminium in waters of the central Arctic. In Trace Metals in Sea Water, eds C. S. Wong, E. Boyle, K. W. Bruland, J. D. Butron and E. D. Goldberg, pp. 131-142, Plenum. New York, 1983. Morozov, N. P., Baturin, G. N., Gordeev, V. V. and Gurvitch, E. G. (1974) On chemical composition of suspended matter and bottom sediment in delta regions of Severnaya Dvina, Mezen, Petchora and Ob (In Russian). Gidrochimicheskiye Materialy 60, 60-73. Muir, D. C. G., Wagemann, R., Hargrave, B. T., Thomas, D. J., Peakall, D. B. and Norstrom, R. J. (1992) Arctic ecosystem contamination. Sci. Tot. Environ. 122, 75-134. Nikanorov, A. M. and Zhulidov, A. V. (1991) Biomonitoring of Metals in Freshwater Ecosystems. Leningrad, Hydrometeoizdat (in Russian). Rahn, K. A. (1981) Atmospheric, riverine and oceanic sources of seven trace constituents to the Arctic Ocean. Atmospheric Environment 15, 1507-1516. Romankevich, E. A. (1984) Geochemistry of Organic Matter in the Ocean, 334 pp., Springer, Berlin, 1984; eds L. Mart and H. W. Nurnberg, Trace metal levels in the eastern Arctic Ocean. Sci. Tot. Environ. 39, 1-14. Russian Federation Surface Water Annual, 1994, Obninsk, VNIIGMI-MTD. Telang, S. A., Pocklington, R., Naidu, A.S., Romankevich, E.A., Gitelson, I.I. and Gladyshev, M.I. (1991) Carbon and mineral transport in major American, Russian Arctic, and Siberian rivers: the Yukon, the Arctic Alaskan rivers, the Arctic Basin rivers in the Soviet Union, and the Yenisey. In Biogeochemistry o f Major Worm Rivers, eds E. T. Degens, S. Kempe and J. E. Richey, pp. 75-104. Wiley, New York. Water Resources of the USSR and Their Use (1987) Leningrad, Hydrometizdat, 300 p. Yeats, P. A. (1988) Manganese, nickel, zinc and cadmium distributions at the Fram 3 and Cesar ice camps in the Arctic Ocean. Oceanol. Acta 11, 383-388. Zhulidov, A. V., Headley, J. V., Robarts, R. D., Nikanorov, A. M. and Ischenko, A. A. Atlas of Russian Wetlands - Biogeography and Metal Concentrations (in press). Zhulidov, A. V., Headley, J. V., Robarts, R. D., Nikanorov, A. M., Ischenko, A. A. and Champ, M. A. (1996) Concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu in Contaminated Wetlands of the Russian Arctic. Marine Pollution Bulletin (this issue).

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