Cooling systems based on solar regeneration

Cooling systems based on solar regeneration

will fly through the upper atmosphere within the region where oxygen atoms are present and most dense. The HARE is to be propelled by energy obtained ...

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will fly through the upper atmosphere within the region where oxygen atoms are present and most dense. The HARE is to be propelled by energy obtained by recombination of these atoms on a catalytic surface placed inside. The atmosphere would be scooped in, heated, and expelled from the tail, pushing the missile forward. The second part of the work is a study to determine more precisely the maximum oxygen atom concentration in the upper atmosphere.

R o b s o n , S. R., "Solar h e a t i n g for a s w i m m i n g pool." New Zealand Engr. Sept. 15, 1956. The author proposes heating a swimming pool by floating a film of blackp.lastic on the pool surface during periods when the pool is no m use. *

Following an appraisal of the fossil fuel situation in an earlier issue, the author considers the potentialities of these two energy sources in meeting future space heating needs. Although the reserves of fissionable material are great, there are some major problems to be overcome before fissionable energy can be realized: disposal of atomic wastes and the disportionate amount of basic materials required by atomic plants as compared to steam plants. The advantages and disadvantages of solar energy utilization are outlined and its applications in various areas discussed.

Paraboloidal mirrors have been made, using a convex plastic paraboloid formed by centrifugal casting on a mercury surface as the master for fabricating plastic replica mirrors. Mirrors with disk of confusion diameters less than 1 mm have been obtained by the process. *

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K e a r n s , D a v i d a n d C a l v i n , M e l v i n , " P h o t o v o l t a i c effect a n d p h o t o c o n d u c t i v i t y in l a m i n a t e d organic syst e m s . " J. Chem. Phys. 29(4) : 950-51, Oct. 1958.

Salam, E h a b a n d Daniels, F a r r i n g t o n , "Selective radia t i o n coatings for solar h e a t i n g . " U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin, 1958. 1 1 4 p.

It has been suggested that the primary quantum conversion process in photosynthesis involves the creation and separation of charge to opposite sides of an asymmetrically constructed lamina followed by the trapping of both the electrons and holes, which then leads to their respective chemical processes. As a result of this suggestion, the authors have studied model systems as semiconductors with a view to creating an organic photovoltaic junction. This paper describes one organic system showing a photovoltaic effect, consisting of magnesium phthalocyanine (MgPh) disks coated with a thin film of airoxidized tetramethyl p-phenylenediamine (TMCD). Maximum voltage developed was 200 my. Other systems, including one using a matrix of coronene coated with a thin layer of o-chlora~ nil as an electron acceptor, will also be investigated.

The preparation and tests of black selective radiation surfaces are described. Thin films of CuO, CuS, MoO3, MnO2, NiS, and iron oxides have been deposited on polished metals including copper, brass, nickel, stainless steel, and aluminum. It is fairly easy to obtain absorptivities of 90 per cent and emissivities of only 10 to 20 per cent. The important property, however, is the permanence of the films in practical use. The best and most permanent coating obtained thus far is prepared by plating copper or iron with nickel and electroplatmg on it a thin film of copper which is then oxidized completely. An attempt is made to explain the behavior of these selective coatings. (authors' abstract) *

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Tabor, Harry, "Radiation, convection and conduction coefficients in solar collectors." Bull. Res. Council Israel 6 C ( 3 ) : 155-76, Aug. 1958. Illus. Heat losses from solar collectors are usually computed on the basis of figures given by Hottel and Woertz. The present paper suggests, after a study of the literature on convection, new coefficients for convection heat transfer, as well as drawing attention to the value of the total hemispherical emissivity of glass, and to the edge losses that can occur in collectors of finite size. (author's abstract)

This paper describes a further study on the fusion of metal oxides. The solar furnace with an aluminum reflector 2 m in diameter and 300 watts per sq cm density in the focal plane was used for fusing A1203 , A12TiO5 and MgO.TiO~ . In each test, a specimen 30 mm in diameter molded with a pressure of 200 kgm per sq cm was put in the focal plane, and a molten body was obtained within a few seconds. Microscopic observation of the molten bodies showed: (1) gamma-A1203 was formed among alpha-Al~O3 in the fused alumina. (2) Only beta-A12TiO was formed in the equimolecular mixture of A1202 and TiO~, while the alpha-form was not observed. Specimens with ratios of MgO.TiO~ ranging from 9:1 to 1:9 were fused, and the existence of MgO. 2TiO~, MgO. TiO~ and 2 MgO.TiO2 was confirmed as expected. (authors' abstract) *

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N o g u c h i , T e t s u o ; H a y a s h i , Hiroshi; M i z u n o , M a s a o ; a n d N o g u c h i , Choji, " H i g h t e m p e r a t u r e research in a solar furnace. I I . O n the fusion of m e t a l oxides." Rept. Govt. Ind. Res. Inst. Nagoya 8(1) : 61-67, 1959. Illus. ( I n Japanese)

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Rusler, George W., " N u c l e a r or solar e n e r g y : which is more practical for space h e a t i n g . " Heat. Pip. Air Cond. 3 1 ( 2 ) : 106-9, Feb. 1958. Illus.

Hass, Georg a n d Jenness, J a m e s R., Jr., " M e t h o d for f a b r i c a t i n g p a r a b o l o i d a l m i r r o r s . " J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48(2) : 86-87, Feb. 1958.

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Williams, D. A.; C h u n g , R . ; Lof, G. O. G . ; F e s t e r , D . A.; a n d Duffle, J. A., " C o o l i n g s y s t e m s based on solar r e g e n e r a t i o n . " Refrig. Eng. N o v . 1958: 33-37, 64-66. Illus. Intermittent adsorption or absorption refrigeration cycles, with regeneration by heating with solar energy, have been proposed for small food coolers and space cooling in non-industrialized areas where refrigeration is not available for economic or technological reasons and where solar radiation is ample and reasonably dependable. This study of food coolers, part of a University of Wisconsin Solar Energy Research Program, provided certain performance data. Here the authors discuss evaluation of potentially useful binary absorption systems; how operating variables affect ideal thermal performance of refrigerant absorbent systems; illustrative experimental data on solar operation of two intermittent refrigeration systems; and analysis of experimental results of solar regeneration process as it affects refrigeration capacity. (authors' abstract)

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P e n s a k , L., " H i g h - v o l t a g e p h o t o v o l t a i c effect." Phys. Rev. 109: 601, 1958. CdTe films developing 100 v per cm in sunlight have been made by vacuum evaporation at 10- 5 mm Hg pressure onto various substance rates at 100-250°, with the films formed at 1000 A per minute. 64