Metallurgical thermochemistry, 5th edition

Metallurgical thermochemistry, 5th edition

involve extensive reading. To ease the burden, however, the generous reading lists are annotated with helpful guidance on the most fruitful sources to...

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involve extensive reading. To ease the burden, however, the generous reading lists are annotated with helpful guidance on the most fruitful sources to consult. Lists of questions suitable for course discussions or essays are also provided. The overall presentation of the material reflects the high standing of its authors but at times the brevity of the rest admits the possibility of misinterpretation. For example in describing the main events covered by the course the authors state, ‘. . . in 1949 came Russia’s first fission bomb test and the United States’ first test of a large thermonuclear device;‘. When the first Russian nuclear test was detected the US scientists were still very uncertain whether a large thermonuclear yield was possible. The demonstration that the US no longer held a monopoly of nuclear weapons increased the demands on the US scientists for a ‘quantum jump’ in weapon technology and accelerated the research into their Super H-bomb project. It is worth recalling a remark at the time, attributed to Edward Teller, ‘We still don’t know if the Super can be built, but we don’t know it on much better grounds.’

E. F. Newley Management of low-level radioactive waste, Vols. 1 and 2. Editedby M. W. Carter, A. A, Moghissiand B. Kahn. Pp. 12 14. Pergamon Press, Oxford. 7 979. f62.50.

The seventy papers presented at this Symposium, which was held in Atlanta, Georgia, in May 1977, have been edited and published in two volumes. Phe principal topic of the meeting was the treatment of wastes arising from light water power reactors and the disposal of the low level solids obtained by shallow land burial. In addition the waste disposal practices at nuclear research centres and fuel reprocessing plants were discussed. The Editors claim that the proceedings give the current state-of-the art in this field; however, because of the delay in publication several papers have become rather dated. Again, all but one of the papers are of US origin and much of the information on waste arising at specific reactor stations and the behaviour of individual burial sites is of little interest outside the USA. The papers included in the first volume outline official US policy on low level waste disposal, review the current and projected arisings of low level wastes, and summarise existing practices in conditioning both liquid and solid wastes. As appropriate, waste solids are shredded, compacted, or incinerated. Liquids are either decontaminated by chemical flocculation or ion exchange, or else concentrated in suitable evaporators. Liquid concentrates, chemical sludges and spent ion exchange resins are generally incorporated in cement or organic polymer matrices. A number of authors describe research in progress to develop improved or alternative techniques, for example, fluidized bed or molten salt combustion for solids, and reverse osmosis or ultrafiltration decontamination for


liquids. Other encapsulating media, including bitumen, are also being tried out. The second volume is devoted to land burial operations in the USA. Case histories are given of all sites especially those where there have been, fortunately small, releases of radioactivity. Research into the factors controlling radionuclide migration through soils is described as is the development of mathematical models to predict the radiological consequences of such migration. These latter studies have a relevance to the EEC programme into the possibility of geological disposal of high level wastes. Most of the work reported at this Symposium has been published elsewhere but there are several good review papers. Unfortunately, there is no account of the discussion which is the most interesting part of such technical meetings. The volumes comprise a useful reference of information, but earlier publication could have made them more attractive.

J. B. Lewis The Solid xiv + 274. University paperback

State by H. M. Rosenberg. Pp. Clarendon Press, Oxford Press. 19 78. Hard cover f5.50, f2.95

This book is an essentially non-mathematical text on solid-state physics which is intended as an introduction to the subject for first- or second-year undergraduates. The first edition, published in 1975, has already and justifiably found its place on lists of recommended books at many universities. In this second edition, a very lucid chapter on superconductivity and the answers to the numerical problems have been added. In common with other books sharing a similar title, it restricts itself to the physics of crystalline solids, amorphous materials and other non-crystalline solids not being covered. With this limitation, however, it is extremely comprehensive and a satisfying balance is struck between treatments of structure, diffraction, defects, vibrations, mechanical and electrical properties, magnetism, dielectric properties, and semiconductors, superconductors. In places the author has skilfully steered around or stopped short of difficult points which a more advanced text would have to tackle. However this is not a disadvantage in a text of this size and scope and the result is a book which is to be commended for its clarity. The illustrations and general appearance are most attractive, as indeed is the price.

E. A. Davis Combustion and Mass Transfer by 0. B. Spalding. Pp. xx+ 409. Pergamon Press, Oxford. 1979. Hard cover f 15.00, flexi cover f5.00.

This book consists of twenty lectures given by Professor Spalding to mechanical engineering students on selected aspects of combustion, together with multiple choice questions and other exercises. A traditional mechanical engineering approach is taken in that the lectures have the necessary thermo-fluid emphasis, whilst the basic chemistry of the

processes is introduced only where absolutely necessary. The coverage of the book is wide, and, as the author notes, somewhat necessarily superficial in the space available. The presentation follows a precise logical pattern which is necessary for the actual lectures but gives a somewhat harsh form of presentation for a book. The book, introduction to the mandatory after combustion and mass transfer, deals with droplet combustion, and its application to the liquid propellant rocket. This is followed by the laminar jet and diffusion flame, and then the turbulent jet and diffusion flame. Following an introduction on chemical kinetics, the chemical kinetic controlled processes of spontaneous ignition and stirred reactors, flame stabilisation, and premixed flames are considered. Finally spark ignition and coal particle combustion are presented. The coverage is such that all the important industrial combustion processes could be quantified by a reader ofthe book, and he would be aware, at least to a certain extent, of the nature ofthe assumptions required. Each chapter concludes with useful, but sometimes ambiguous multiple-choice questions and some problems or other exercises. The book, particularly the paper back version, represents good value for money and will doubtless find its way on many reading lists for students undertaking courses in combustion.


Metallurgical Thermochemistry, edition by 0. Kubaschewskiand Alcock. Pp. v + 449. Pergamon Oxford. 1979. Hardcoverf25.00, coverf 10.00.


5th C. B. Press, Flexi

This is a well produced book, which deals with an important subject. Chapter 1, The Theoretical Basis, assumes an understanding of thermodynamics but has some surprising omissions, e.g. no definition of standard states. Chapter 2 is probably the best comprehensive account of experimental methods in metallurigcal thermochemistry now available. Although there is little about modern methods of data acquisition and some out-dated instrumentation is mentioned (e.g. toluene regulators for thermostat control) this chapter throughout has the correct emphasis: sophisticated apparatus can be bought, but to obtain significant results requires skill and attention to all the factors that can influence the result. Chapter 3 gives some interesting methods for estimating thermochemical data. Chapter 4 applies thermochemical data to some well-chosen metallurgical problems. Chapter 5 is a tabulation (150 pages) of critically selected data; experimental errors and literature references are given. The data are given in ‘calories’, but the calorie used is not the 15Ocal. defined on page x. The authors give reasons for using non-S1 units but this is a disadvantage because this book should be highly recommended reading for students of metallurgy and related subjects (especially chapters 2 and 4) and present day students are more familiar with SI.

G. P&her