Oral diagnosis, oral medicine and treatment planning

Oral diagnosis, oral medicine and treatment planning

348 Reviews and Am. J. Orthod. April 1985 abstracts wishing to have a source book of the present state of the art of orthodontics. In spite of it...

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Am. J. Orthod. April 1985


wishing to have a source book of the present state of the art of orthodontics. In spite of its title, the major portion of the book is concerned with technique. Despite a great deal of research performed in the last 2 decades, there is little evidence that significant advances have been made toward establishing more biologic or rational principles for orthodontic practice. The current principles are not significantly different from those found in this book’s predecessor-Current Orthodontic Concepts and Techniques. In fact, the two books may be regarded as companion volumes, the new supplementing and augmenting rather than replacing the old. The half-life of knowledge today is short. The same is true in state of the art technology. It may therefore be anticipated that this book will be followed by a successor in the not too distant future. There will always be a need for a comprehensive text on orthodontic theory and practice. Whatever deficiencies this book may have, and there are few, they are mainly by virtue of omission rather than commission, and therefore hardly constitute a serious criticism. The book is beautifully produced, easy to read, and informative in both its text and bibliographies. By today’s standards, it is also very reasonably priced. It provides a perspective, second to none, of where we are in orthodontics today. Peter S. Vig

Clinical Uses of Fluorides Stephen H. Y. Wei Philadelphia, illustrations,

1985. Lea Br Febiger. index. Price, $29.00

232 pages,


This book is a report of a State of the Art Conference held in May, 1984, under the sponsorship of the University of California, Region IX of the United States Public Health Service, and the Councils on Research and Dental Therapeutics of the American Dental Association. Education grants by a number of commercial companies also contributed to the conference and publication of this book. With potential problems of caries, decalcification, and gingival health a concern to orthodontists, this volume offers the first major work on the clinical uses of fluorides in the past 10 years. The often confusing, present-day fluoride issues are discussed and clarified. Such items as fluoride supplements and dietary sources of fluorides, the role of fluorides in the prevention and treatment of gingivitis, the remineralization of incipient caries, methods of using 0.4% stannous fluoride gel,

types of toothpastes and mouth rinses, prophylaxis procedures, and techniques of topical application of fluorides are of primary interest to general practitioners but should also be of interest to orthodontists. A short discussion by Robert Boyd, who is both a periodontist and an orthodontist, highlights the periodontal problems and means of control in orthodontic patients. Illustrations are clear and pertinent. Production details are good. The editor has unified the conference papers well. The question-and-answer session covers a multitude of problems and clinical solutions. It would seem to the reviewer that it is the responsibility of every dentist to know the current state of use for a substance that has had a more profound effect on dentistry in the past 45 years than any other single anticaries nostrum. This book provides that opportunity. T. M. Graber

Oral Diagnosis, Oral Medicine and Treatment Planning Robert P. Lsnglais, Steven L. Bricker, James A. Cottone, and Bill R. Baker Philadelphia, 1984, W. B. Saunders Company. 443 illustrations, index. Price, $29.50

400 pages,

This book has been designed primarily as a text for the predoctoral dental student. In addition, it provides a great deal of information (not readily available elsewhere) for making logical and consistent treatment plans with reasonable prognoses. The book describes the diagnostic process for the student or practicing dentist. This is followed by a section on how to gather information. Anamnestic data become more and more important in our litigious society, and in this book they are handled simply and clearly. Next are several chapters on how to analyze and weigh the information gained so that a proper diagnosis can be made-one that leads to the best possible therapeutic approach. The last two chapters discuss treatment planning for the medically compromised patient and the prognostic process. Two appendices contain an index of patient management problems and major drug interactions. In addition to the authors, five special contributors help make the book achieve its rather ambitious goal of providing a good background in oral diagnosis, oral medicine, and treatment planning without becoming an unwieldy and overly detailed tome. For the specialist not confronted with medical problems everyday (the orthodontist), it is an appropriate clinical reference source.

Volume 87 Number 4

Reviews and abstracts 349

Despite the modest price of the book, paper quality is satisfactory and most illustrations are clear and understandable. Unfortunately, some of the tissue views are less than desirable and would have been improved significantly by color. Let us hope that the next edition will include a few color plates; these would greatly enhance the appeal. T. M. Graber

Behandslungsziel Beim Deckbiss (Management of Deep Bite Problems) Rolf Diernberger Fortschr.


45: 297,


This article is directed primarily to Class II, Division 2 malocclusions. Malocclusions of this type are characterized by a very deep overbite and by the lingual inclination of the maxillary incisors with the actual labial position of the apices of the teeth. The author discusses the genetic predisposition of these cases and the periodontal and gnathologic implications. He then describes the therapy that he believes to be most effective, considering the predominance of morphogenetic pattern and the strong relapse tendencies usually encountered. The conventional method of tipping the crowns labially and creating a Class II, Division 1 malocclusion is questioned. This method tends to perpetuate the labial apical position of the maxillary anterior teeth. It is important instead to torque the lingually inclined incisors in their original position, so as not to alter the muscle balance. Depressive forces are needed while lingual torque is being applied. Early assault on the torque problem is more likely to be successful. To maintain facial and muscle balance, selected extractions of maxillary premolars are often necessary. T. M. Graber

The Holographic Storage of Study Models P. J. Keatlng, FL A. Parker, D. Keane, and L. Wright Br. J. Orthod.




As most orthodontists know from sad experience, the storage of plaster study models poses major logistic problems. As in Dukat’s “Sorcerer’s Apprentice,” the models keep coming and soon fill all available space. Pulling out models for each case, restoring them, lengthy preparation, breakage, and shipping on transfer

are just a few of the concerns. Legally, the orthodontist is required to keep the records for a minimum of 10 years (7 years in Britain), so disposal when the case is completed is out of the question. The use of holographic films to record three-dimensional, measurable images of study models may well provide a viable substitute. Based on holography (the wavefront reconstruction process invented by the Nobel prize laureate Gabor), the actual roots of the process go as far back as Grimaldi in 1660. The development of the laser beam made holography practical. The authors describe the principles of holography and then explain how to record a holograph by the single-beam reflection method developed by Soviet scientist Yuri Denisyuk in 1962. The system described is in operation in the Medicai Physics Department of the Royal County Hospital in Brighton, England, designed by two of the authors. A helium-neon laser beam of 25 mW power irradiates a holographic film of high resolution for about 2 seconds. The film is held between two optical-quality glass plates of 2.5 mm thickness, which keeps the film flat and firm. The orthodontic study models are placed beneath these glass plates, as close as possible without touching. No vibrations are allowed. This is so critical that the glass plates are allowed to set for up to 3 minutes after placement of the film prior to exposure. After processing, as described by the authors, image reconstruction is analyzed. Because the holograms are of the white-light reflection type, it is not necessary to use a laser beam for reconstruction. The advantages from a cost point of view are obvious. A pinpoint white halogen light is utilized that provides images sharp enough for clinical purposes. The virtual image obtained by reconstruction of the transmission’ hologram (that is, the image that appears where the model was) can be measured accurately in three dimensions. Conditions needed to achieve this are described. A preliminary investigation has been conducted to determine the accuracy of the virtual images. Twelve different dimensions, representing most of the normal requirements, were measured ten times each on the model and the hologram; half the measurements were made a month later. Statistical analysis shows that the random errors were clinically insignificant. They were only slightly greater than 0.33 mm at maximum. Only two dimensions differed by more than. this amount-intercanine width (0.39 mm) and model depth from the left canine cusp to the model base (0.64 mm). It is possible that the intercanine error occurred not only in the measurement but also in the definition of the