Physiological Pharmaceutics—Barriers to Drug Absorption

Physiological Pharmaceutics—Barriers to Drug Absorption

Journal of Controlled Release 93 (2003) 85 – 89 www.elsevier.com/locate/jconrel Book reviews An introduction to tissue – biomaterial interactions Ed...

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Journal of Controlled Release 93 (2003) 85 – 89 www.elsevier.com/locate/jconrel

Book reviews

An introduction to tissue – biomaterial interactions Edited by Kay C. Dee, David A. Puleo and Rena Bizios, Wiley, New York, 2002, 248 pp. An understanding of the possible interactions of body fluids and tissues with man-made devices and biomaterials is pivotal to many medical technologies. Examples include dental implants, hip replacements, and arterial grafts. Macroscopic and microscopic events (especially those at surfaces) can be critical in determining whether a device will succeed or fail. This book, intended for undergraduate use, attempts to provide detail about the critical events that can occur, especially at a molecular level. It will be useful to those teaching courses that cover aspects of biomaterials and biomedical engineering. The book also provides a well-written introduction to those interested in this emerging field. It is suitable for engineers with little or no biology and also for biologists with little or no engineering background. In almost all clinical situations involving biomaterials, wound healing will be involved. The authors have correctly emphasised the importance of this process throughout their text. Key chapters include those dealing with blood –biomaterial interactions in coagulation, inflammation, injection, and wound healing. The book includes a useful glossary and two detailed examples (opening occluded vessels; vascular grafts, internal hyperplasia; replacing joints and teeth). Each chapter includes suggested further reading, quiz questions, and study questions. Those in the controlled release implants field could find the book a useful introduction to the biological environment and the consequences of introducing a ‘‘foreign’’ material. The authors correctly state that the body is chemically, electrically, and mechanically active, and the interface between an implanted biomaterial (or for that

matter, a drug delivery device) is the location of a wide range of dynamic processes and reactions. Many effects are still not fully understood. For example, the development of tumours at or near the surface of an implanted device (foreign-body carcinogenesis) depends in some unknown way on the shape and characteristics of the device as well as an end-stage foreign body response. Fibrous encapsulation of devices can cause complications in terms of infection as well as in drug delivery. Drug delivery systems per se are given little attention, although PLGA gets a mention as an example of a polymer with biomedical applications— drug release. S.S. Davis The School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK doi:10.1016/S0168-3659(03)00331-6

Physiological Pharmaceutics—Barriers to Drug Absorption By Neena Washington, Clive Washington, and Clive G. Wilson. Taylor and Francis, New York, 2001, 312 pp. This book is a follow-up to a first edition that was published in 1990. To begin, this reviewer attempted to understand the focus of the book and its intended audience. The title attempts to narrowly define the field of Pharmaceutics by equating Physiology with Pharmaceutics. I understand physiologically based drug delivery but the field of Pharmaceutics is much broader than drug delivery and hence the book title seems inappropriate. The subtitle seems equally incor-

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Book reviews

rect and should probably be re-titled as Barriers to Drug Delivery. Turning to the Preface to search for some understanding of the need for such a book and its intended audience was not helpful. Thus, I will assume that these very well established scientists felt a need for a primer for undergraduate students or for those whose education and training is outside of the pharmaceutical sciences. The book itself is well written with an introductory chapter on cell membranes and epithelial barriers to drug absorption followed by a series of chapters on the various routes of administration. The chapters are a bit uneven, in terms of coverage, and perhaps this illustrates an emphasis on the authors’ expertise. The chapter on Parenterals was a little disappointing given the current emphasis on targeted and polymeric injectable systems. For example, the issue of system biocompatibility was given very brief coverage with no examples or guidelines. A great advantage of this text over others that cover the same subject matter is that the authors are world experts in scintigraphy and bring their insight on dosage form processing in the specific route of administration to each chapter in which they have such experience. This is especially well illustrated in chapters that deal with the oral route of administration. The book itself is well referenced and has good graphics, and the writing is very good so that it is an easy read. I recommend this book as an additional read for undergraduate pharmacy students and for those outside the field who wish an understanding of the role of anatomy and some physiological processes in drug delivery. Joseph R. Robinson School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, 777 Highland Ave., Madison, WI 53705, USA

kinetics, primarily from solid polymer systems. Models for various mechanisms are discussed, including diffusion, dissolution, ion exchange, swelling, erosion, and osmosis. Shape and boundary effects are treated in detail. In addition to modeling, fabrication techniques for various kinds of devices are outlined. This book is best as a reference for practitioners in the field. It is encyclopedic in its presentation of equations that have been developed, and it adequately cites the original literature. I find it less satisfactory as a teaching tool, however. The plethora of equations is not accompanied uniformly by reflective analysis, evaluation, and critiquing of models as they have been applied to experimental data. (Unfortunately, this criticism may also be applied to a substantial fraction of the original literature in the field.) A truly comprehensive text devoted to the modeling of controlled release systems has not yet appeared. In addition to critical evaluation of various theories, such a book would present comparative analyses. For example, it would be useful to point out the similarities and differences of physicochemical processes underlying osmotic- and swelling-controlled release, and of the mathematical descriptions of swelling- and erosion-controlled release. The production quality of this book is uneven. There are a few minor typographical errors. Formatting of equations, figures, and text is not uniform, and sometimes these features are crowded together. Similarly, artwork is ‘‘bare-bones,’’ and it appears that the publisher put minimal effort into its presentation.

Ronald A. Siegel Departments of Pharmaceutics and Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 9-177 Weaver-Densford Hall, 308 Harvard St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA

doi:10.1016/S0168-3659(03)00332-8

doi:10.1016/S0168-3659(03)00334-1

Controlled release dosage form design By C.-J. Kim, Technomic, Lancaster PA, 2000, 301 pp.

Drug Delivery By W. Mark Saltzman, Oxford, New York, 2001, 372 pp.

This monograph presents models that have been developed over the years to describe controlled release

To my knowledge, this is the first graduate level text that treats the scientific and engineering principles