Economy, and Tree of responsibility has too msmy brar~es. The second Of these discusses some of the er~ineering aspects including groumd conditions amd tunnelling.
tect the diversion turmel which was constructed inside this system. 792111 ~ I S S TUNNEL CONFIRMS MINI'S URBAN ROLE Water S~V, V82, N988, Jure 1978, P361-362
792105 B E R N I C E T U ~ E ~ S T R U C ~ S ON Ha~ward, D New Civ Er~r, N316, 26 Oct 1978, P23-24
Reports the use of a Mini Fullfacer tura~lllng system which undercuts the rock amd breaks the remaining two thirds towards the free face. This system was selected for cutting a sewer tunnel t h r o t ~ hard Jurassic limestone, under existing railway and buildings in Laufen, Switzerlamd. The tunnel length was 250 m and passed through rock of average compressive strer~th 1000-1300 bar, with thin clay strata between the h~izontal rock banks. Average advance was 15 m per day.
Reports the use of the bentonite tummy11 ing machine for the 1.4km sewer tummel at Warrir~ ton, UK. Difficult and varied ground conditions including abrasive sandstone amd boulders instead of the expected sand caused slow progress although it is c l ~ m ~ d that the use of the machine has proved the validity of the process. 792106 MAJOR TRENDS IN TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION Hutchinson, D Water Serv, V82, N990, August 1978, I~92-496
Places tunnels in 3 categories: soft ground tumnels (ballasts, sands, clays), soft rock tunn e l s (chalks, shales, broken rock), hard rock tttmnels (massive sandstones, limestone, granites). Ground support and machinery requirements for these categories are reviewed, with particular reference to face excavation techniques.
792113 APPLICATION OF TUNNELLING MACHINES IN YUGOSLAVIA Simic, R Tlkvm Tura%ig, V10, N9, 1978, P37-$0
792108 TUNN~/IING MACHINES COPE WITH VARIED ROCK CONDITIONS AT KIELD~ Berry, N S M Water Serv, V82, N988, June 1978, P353-356
The first tunnelling machine operation in Yugoslavla was a 2.3 m dla water supply tunnel driven through karst limestone in 1977-78. Four other machines have been werking during 1978. The turmels, methods of workir~, progress and difficulties encountered are described in each case. Advance rates are compared with those obtained with machines elsewhere in Europe and with those achieved by drill a~d blast techniques.
considers briefly the various rock types anticipated in the Derwent-Wear-Tees tunnels (sarastone, limestone, mmdstone, and mixed faces) amd reports the perfc~ms~ce of the full-face tunr~11ing machines being used in the tumnelll~g contract. To date, Ii maJc~ faults have been successfully negotiated.
792114 792109 PORTOBELLO 0UTFALL AT ~RIGRTON Water Serv, V82, N988, JUne 1978, P356-357 Describes the new outfall corstructad as a tunnel under the seabed through the w a t e ~ bearimg chalk east of Brighton. The tura~el was constructed in free air amd has an intermal d/sneer of 2.13 m ~ l e a ~ 1830 m. Difficulties encountered with chalk deterlc~tion are discussed briefly.
SC~ RESISTS MAJOR ACID ATTACK ON TUNNEL D I V ~ I O N SCHEME Water Serv, V82, N968, June 1978, P357 Briefly reports a successful remedial operation to prevent highly acidic groum~water from attacking the concrete lining of %he Swan Brook diversion tunnel, West Midlamds. The scread is a synthetic resin cement with high resistance to maz~ reactive chemicals amd stromg permanent adhesion to a wide range of suBstrates. In this instance the screed was applied as a barrier ~rane within a sacrificial tunnel, to pro-
Correlations are made between Schmidt hammer rebound number, compressive strength, discontinuity frequency, RqD and Q-factar and the rate of advance of a roadheader through Coal Measures strata in a shallow tunnel. Poor correlations were obtained for ur~oned data. COrrelations were germ--rally improved when average values over zones of similar litholo~ were considered. A close correlation between Schmidt rebound n ~ r and advance rate was obtained. The results indicate the difficulty of predicting tunnel advance rates from isolated site investigation test data.
792107 %~40 TUNNEL SYST~WS FROM THE SAME S T A W ~ - IRON S E ~ AND C O N U R ~ PIPE JACKING Smith, T R Water serv, V82, N~8, Jkkne 1978, P351-352 Part of a feature on tunnelling in the water industry. Discusses briefly the use of large dis~eter concrete pipes installed by pipe Jacking methods, and the alternative method of segmented t m m e l linings (concrete or iron) installed as excavation progresses.
GEOTECHNICAL FACTORS AFFECTING T U ~ I N G HINE FERFO~WANCE IN COAL MEASURES ROCK Poole, R W; Farmer, I W Turm T u r ~ , VlO, NIO, 1978, P27-30
ROCKBURSTS IN NEW YORK Bimder, L Tunn Tunnig, VlO, NS, 1978, P15-17 Rockbursts in the metsmorphic rocks u r ~ l y i n g N ~ Yark City have been known to tummellers since the late 1880' s. The phenomemon has created t~mnellimg difficulties in a variety Of rock types in the area. The problems amd the w~y in which they have been cour~ered are described.
792]_15 P ~ I N G MISCONCEPTIONS ON THE NEW AUSTRIAN TUNNELLING ~ T H O D MUller, L Tunn Ttmmlg, VlO, NS, 1978, P29-32 The author claims that the NATM has often been misunderstood: it is not so much a w~v of excavating amd supporting but rather a total concept. Success depends on following a set of principles, one of which is to utillse the rock mass as the main load bearing component with the lining establishing a load bearing rimg. Examples show that where the principles have not been followed, failure has resulted.