N O T E S FROM T H E U. S. B U R E A U
A CHEMICAL AND STRUCTURAL STUDY OF MESQUITE, CAROB, AND HONEY LOCUST BEANS. I By G. P. Walton. [ABSTRACT.]
quantities of mesquite beans are allowed to go to waste each year in the United States. In an effort to promote their utilization, the Bureau of Chemistry undertook an investigation to determine whether or not these beans might be made to serve some useful purpose. The literature was searched for data on the nutritive value of the mesquite fruit. Samples were analyzed in the laboratory to determine the con.tent of sugar and other crude nutrients, and a process for separating the mesquite bean into its component parts (high-protein seed kernel, seed coat, and sugary pod) was devised. The results of this work, supplemented by notes on carob and honey locust beans, are given in Department Bulletin. I I94. GREAT
I. ISOLATION AND ELEMENTARY ANALYSES OF A GLOBULIN, ALBUMIN, AND PROLAMINE. 2
By D. Breese Jones and C. E. F. Gersdorff. [ABSTRACT.]
THREE proteins, an albumin, a globulin, and an alcohol-soluble protein, have been isolated from wheat bran. The bran, which originally was exceptionally clean, was rapidly washed in cold water and immediately dried at a low temperature. In this way the greater part of the adhering particles of other portions of the wheat kerrml was removed. The bran was then ground to a fine powder. This contained I7.25 per cent. of protein (N × 6.25). By excessive exhaustive extractions with distilled water, 4 per cent. sodium chloride solution, 7° per cent. alcohol, and 0. 5 per cent. sodium hydroxide solution, 86.6I per cent. of the total * Communicated by the Chief of the Bureau. ' Issued as Dept. Agr. Bul. II94, Dec. 22, I923. * Published in J. Biol. Chem., 55 (Nov., I923) : IX7. VOL. 197, No. I I 7 8 - - I 9
BUREAU OF CHEMISTRY NOTES.
[J. F. I.
protein in the bran was extracted (N x 6.25). The percentages of proteins actually isolated, expressed in terms of the total protein, in the bran, were as follows: Albumin, 16.64; globulin, 13.62; alcohol-soluble protein, 31.Ol. Analyses showed these proteins to have the following average elementary percentage composition: Albumin, N 15.42 , C 53.21, H 6.71 , S 1.35; globulin, N 17.76, C 53.43, H 7.4o, S o.91; alcohol-soluble protein, N 15.35, C 54.25, H 6.75, S 1.35. T H E V A L U E OF S W E E T P O T A T O F L O U R IN B R E A D - M A K I N G ? • By H. C. Gore.
[ABSTRACT.] A LARGEnumber of experiments in which a series of mixtures of varying percentages of sweet potato flour and hard wheat flour have been conducted in the Bureau of Chemistry. The use of sweet potato flour increased the volume substantially. One and one-half per cent. of sweet potato flour seemed to give the best results. Experiments on the Sign of the E l e c t r i c C h a r g e A s s u m e d by a Metal Immersed in a Liquid. W. D. KLEEMAN and W. FREDERICKSON. (Phys. Rev., Aug., I923.)--Very thin wires of different substances were suspended at the lower ends of silk threads two metres long. About 3 centimetres of the length of the wire was in the liquid contained in a tank 3 × 4 × 6 cm. A direct current was passed from one aluminum electrode to the other, the wire having its length roughly perpendicular to the stream lines. Usually upon the passage of the current the wire moved either with or against the current. The distance through which the lower end was displaced equalled in general several times the diameter of the wire. Reversing the direction of the current caused the motion of the wire to reverse in direction. Wires of the following in distilled water moved against the current and hence assumed a negative charge--C, Ag, Al, Au, Cu, Mg, Mo, Ni, Pt, Sn, W, Zn, while Bi, Cd, Fe, Pd received a positive charge. " The metals Ag, Au, Bi, Fe, Pd, and Pt have been obtained in colloidal solution in water, and the directions of their motion under the action of an electric field have been observed. The results indicate that the metals Bi, Fe and Pb are positively charged with respect to water, and the metals Ag, Au and Pt are negatively charged. This falls into line with the preceding results." G. F. S. 3Published in Ind. Eng. Chem., 15 (Dec., I923) : 1238.