U N D E R G R O U N D EXCAVATIONS:TUNNELS ison is fair. The equations presented and the associated results may provide a benchmark test for finite element or boundary element computer codes written for the same purpose. (from Authors) 951267 Earth pressmre on a block pumphouse of the Zaporozh'e nuclear power plant E. N. Bellendir, A. L. Gol'din & A. A. Gotlif, Soil Mechanics & Foundation Engineering, 31(1), 1994, pp 1219; translated from: Osnovaniya, Fundamenty i M e k h a n i k a Gruntov, no.l, 1994, pp 10-15. Results are set forth from a set of investigations (full-scale observations, laboratory experiments, and calculations by the finite-element method) to determine the lateral earth pressure on the underground part of a block pumphouse of the Zaporozh'e nuclear power plant. Laboratory investigations of sandy soils made it possible to confirm the validity of basic premises of a model of nonassociated plasticity and suggest a procedure for determining the model's parameters. Comparison of the results of FEM calculations with data from fullscale observations showed that satisfactory correspondence is achieved only by taking into account strengthening and the sequence of erection of the structure and backfilling. (Journal summary)
Tunnels 951268 TML France: the civil engineering work for the Channel Tunnel in France P. Matheron, Proceedings - ICE: Civil Engineering - the Channel Tunnel, Part 3, 1994, pp 3-5. The construction director for the French section of the £10 billion Channel Tunnel project introduces this Special Issue by describing how the French construction work was organized, how the decentralized management met its objectives and how effective communication with up to 4000 site staff was maintained throughout the six-year construction programme. (Author) 951269
Tunnels - geology H. Barthcs & 12 others, Proceedings - ICE: Civil Engineering - the Channel Tunnel, Part 3, 1994, pp 6-10. In 1882, the geology of the Pas-de-Calais region was investigated in connection with a Channel crossing project. After an historical review of these surveys, this paper describes subsequent exploratory work carried out after the submission and study by means of the geostatic method and the geological data, and the presence of Chalk Marl. A description of the geotechnicai characteristics and the tectonics of the site is followed by a section on the choice of the alignment based upon these data. The paper concludes with a detailed description of the geological follow-up studies carried out during the works. (Authors) 951270
Tunnels - transport logistics H. Barthes & 12 others, Proceedings - ICE: Civil Engineering - the Channel Tunnel, Part 3, 1994, pp 11-14. The paper opens with a description of the constraints imposed by a tunnel project. The organization of train deliveries using rails in the tunnels, for the transport of personnel as well as equipment is detailed, and the techniques employed in the removal of spoil, including pumping, are outlined in the final paragraphs. (Authors)
951271 Tunnels tunnel boring machines H. Barthes & 12 others, Proceedings - ICE: Civil Engineering the Channel Tunnel, Part 3, 1994, pp 15-19. -
This paper begins by describing the requirements for the tunnelling machines. Five machines were used, three on the marine tunnels and two on the land tunnels. The description is then developed, distinguishing between the types of machines working under the sea and those under land. A table summarizes the main characteristics of the tunnelling machines. (Authors) 951272 Tunnels - electric power supply H. Barthes & 12 others, Proceedings - ICE: Civil Engineering - the Channel Tunnel, Part 3, 1994, pp 20-22. Almost all the power consumed by the Channel Tunnel project (98%) was electrical. This energy was provided by the Gravelines nuclear power plant, backed where necessary by the Palnel nuclear plant. On the site, electric power was distributed by three ring-main circuits. The main functions on the underground sites were clearly differentiated and the power circuits were doubled to ensure the dependability of the network. Finally, a stand-by power plant using diesel engines was provided to supply 8500 kW when necessary. (Authors) 951273 Tunnels - the Fond-Pignon discharge site H. Barthes & 12 others, Proceedings - ICE: Civil Engineering - the Channel Tunnel, Part 3, 1994, pp 23-25. The natural basin of Fond-Pignon, about 2 km from the Sangatte shaft, was chosen as the discharge site for tunnelling spoil. It was therefore necessary to build an embankment across the basin. This paper describes the embankment and its retaining capacities and discusses the characteristics and consolidation process of the spoil, which was pumped from the shaft as a slurry. (Authors) 951274 Tunnels - dcwatering H. Barthes & 12 others, Proceedings- ICE: Civil Engineering - the Channel Tunnel, Part 3, 1994, pp 26-29. Three muses of water ingress were taken into account during the driving phases: lining leakage rates, normal and accidental water inflows related to the excavation sites, and the residue of service water used in tunnels. This paper reviews these assumptions and then describes the dewatering installations at the Sangatte shaft, in both the land and marine tunnels. (Authors) 951275 Tunnels - ventilation H. Barthes & 12 others, Proceedings - ICE: Civil Engineering - the Channel Tunnel, Part 3, 1994, pp 30-33. Ventilation requirements were evaluated in accordance with the regulations and recommendations of the social security organization, the building and public works safety organization, the underground works association and the underground mine regulations. This paper describes the equipment chosen for the marine and land tunnelling operations and explains how ventilation arrangements changed as the work progressed. (Authors) 951276
Tunnels - shaft and marshalling chambers H. Bartbes & 12 others, Proceedings- ICE: Civil Engineering - the Channel Tunnel, Part 3, 1994, pp 34-38.