Strategic Local Governance Policy and Waste Management - Prishtina Municipality Case

Strategic Local Governance Policy and Waste Management - Prishtina Municipality Case

15th Workshop on International Stability, Technology, and Culture The International Federation of Automatic Control June 6-8, 2013. Prishtina, Kosovo ...

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15th Workshop on International Stability, Technology, and Culture The International Federation of Automatic Control June 6-8, 2013. Prishtina, Kosovo

Strategic Local Governance Policy and Waste Management - Prishtina Municipality Case I. Krasniqi*, D. Krasniqi**, G. Krasniqi*** * University for Business and Technology Lagja Kalabria N.N, 10000 Prishtine, Republic of Kosovo e-mail: ([email protected]) **, Pristina University, (email: [email protected];) ***Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning (email: [email protected])

Abstract: The paper will address the strategic management of local governance policy and waste management practices in the municipality of Prishtina. Rapid urbanization has made waste management a serious problem today. The perception of the people has always been that it is a responsibility of the local government bodies. This paper will include the evaluation of available and practical alternatives and techniques, initiating a practical waste recycling methodology, and promoting 3R, Reduce, Reuse and Recycle waste and improve the management in the waste sector for the local municipality level. Keywords: Waste, sustainable management, local governance, project management, waste collection and treatment, recycling 1. INTRODUCTION

300,000-400, 000 inhabitants (Kosovo Environmental Strategy, MESP 2010) including the non-residential inhabitants that frequents the capital during the day.

Prishtina Municipality is located in the central part of Kosovo covering an area of 572 km². It is the administrative, political, economic and cultural centre of the Republic of Kosovo and the most populous municipality. The huge influx of people to Prishtina after the 1999 conflict from other parts of Kosovo placed tremendous pressure on the existing infrastructure in the municipality, from accommodation to public services and roads.

Rapid urbanization has made solid waste management a serious problem today. The perception of the people has always been that it is a responsibility of the local government bodies to offer best services and keep the municipal area clean. Prishtina has been experiencing enormous difficulties with garbage collection over past years and there are two main reasons: first local authorities do not have sufficient capacity to develop a waste management strategy and secondly there is not awareness of inhabitants over the importance of their role in the keeping city clean.

Effective utilization of natural resources is crucial for mankind because of today’s society, which is based on mass production and mass consumption, as well as the expansion of populations and consumption in developing countries. The production of large amounts of waste makes it difficult to maintain a ready supply of landfill area; at the same time, it is necessary to minimize destruction of the natural environment caused by the development of landfills.

Low collection coverage, unavailable transport services, and lack of suitable treatment, recycling and disposal facilities are responsible for unsatisfactory waste management, leading to water, land and air pollution, and for putting people and the environment at risk (Brown, M.L., 2002).

Thus, the significance of reducing the amount of waste bound for landfills is increasing. No one want to accept a decline in the quality of life. As a result, utmost efforts must be exerted to reduce the amount of resources we use, while maintaining the current standard of living. In addition to this, recycling and the construction of a sound material-cycle society need to be promoted. Therefore, efficiency in the waste management and recycling businesses is vital in order to harmonize environmental protection with economic growth.

As municipal waste is considered waste from households, waste from other activities as retail trade activity, street garbage, waste produced by institutions and similar activities, and waste from the wholesale trade and construction. In the municipal waste are included waste from city savage system and foods remains from kindergartens and cantinas. There are number of issues related to this sector that affects directly in above mention sector like: Incomplete legislation and low level of institutional and public awareness, no cost recovery and low productivity, insufficient data on production and composition of waste, lack of installations for waste treatment and improper management of landfill, low awareness regarding environmental hazards, health risks,

The municipality has faced serious difficulties with the provisions of water, waste management and electricity supply. The total population, which increased significantly since the end of the 1999 conflict, is estimated around

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IFAC SWIIS 2013 June 6-8, 2013. Prishtina, Kosovo

illegal dumping of waste, insufficient knowledge about integrated municipal waste management and no strategic planning at the local level, i.e. missing local waste management plan and low productivity of the waste collection and disposal service (Bernstein, Janis. 2004).

is certainly one of the dirtiest in the entire Balkan region (Eptisa Study on Waste Survey 2010).

Recent studies indicate that most municipalities are inadequately prepared for taking on this new competence and most municipal officials working in this area have low awareness of the relevant legal framework (Evans, E. 2002). Moreover, local Public Owned Enterprises are heavily affected by low management capacity, low service delivery standards, and inadequate collection rates, as already mentioned. The anticipated measures are to support the development of local municipal capacity building and infrastructure by establishing an efficient integrated garbage collection Action Plan. In the medium term it can be expected that a shift of waste volumes takes place, i.e. greater quantities of waste are being collected separately and recovered, and savings of raw materials increase significantly. Recovery of energy and materials from waste also means savings of fossil fuels such as oil, gas and coal (Cointreau S. J. 1994). 2. BACKGROUND AND PROBLEM ANALYSIS In this part the overview of the existing situation and literature will be given. 2.1 Problem analysis

Fig.1.1.Problems resulting from the garbage collection sector for the Municipality of Prishtina

Garbage on the streets has been a feature of Prishtina Municipality for many years now. As presented on the “problem tree” diagram below there are two main interrelated reasons for this situation. First of all local authorities do not have expertise needed to develop a complete waste management strategy, nor do they have resources to keep the city clean (DaBreo, S. 2003).

The municipality took over responsibility for the garbage collection company “Pastrimi” through a process that started in November 2008 and has done some minor steps toward improvement but still far form the situation where the awareness of citizens and the payment rate are increased (Municipality of Prishtina, Report 2009).

Secondly, the residents are not aware of the importance of their role in the process of keeping the city clean by properly disposing the garbage, and of their obligation to pay the garbage collection fee (the current payment rate is at some 40 -50 percent).

This situation poses a great challenge for the municipality’s executive, which will have the control over 78 percent of the company’s shares. Up to now the municipal assembly approved the shareholders committee of the company. The recruitment of the Board of Directors has not yet been completed, as regional arrangements with the other municipalities that hold shares have to be made according to the Kosovo government’s administrative instruction issued in March 2009 (Eptisa Study on Waste Survey 2012). This situation poses a great challenge for the municipality’s executive, which will have the control over 78 percent of the company’s shares. Up to now the municipal assembly approved the shareholders committee of the company. The recruitment of the Board of Directors has not yet been completed, as regional arrangements with the other municipalities that hold shares have to be made according to the Kosovo government’s administrative instruction issued in March 2009.

Furthermore, the Prishtina municipality had until recently, no direct influence over the city’s cleaning company Pastrimi, a formerly public owned enterprise that was under the control of the Kosovo Trust Agency (KTA). Lately, the municipality has been granted control over the waste management enterprise but it lacks sufficient experience in the field of waste management as well as the funds for substantial changes in the garbage management system. Below are key obstacles and the following is an overview of identified problem areas for the Municipality of Prishtina in waste management and garbage collection. The Municipality of Prishtina has been experiencing problems with garbage collection in the past years. Everyone in municipality’s management shared the opinion that the city 177

IFAC SWIIS 2013 June 6-8, 2013. Prishtina, Kosovo

Tab.1. Daily average of waste production in Prishtina and other regions (kg/capita) Region Collect. Population Kg Daily amount










250 200

(1000T) Prishtina


500 000







Region Other


1 600 000




2 100 000



0 Prishtine/ Pristina

regions Total

Other regions

Average Kosovo

Fig.2. Garbage production in Prishtina and other regions (yearly /capita) 3. EFICIENT WASTE MANAGEMENT Below are described most important activities that should be taken during the project implementation: Evaluation of available and practical alternatives and techniques , Initiating a practical waste recycling methodology, Preparation of Municipal Waste Management Action Plan and capacity building in this sector for the Municipality of Prishtina.

Waste management is one of most important issues for Sustainable Environmental Management. So far, the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning has established basic legal structure for waste management. We are aware that waste management cannot be carried out only by a single institution and that joint actions are needed by lawmaking institutions, executive institutions, regulatory office, local governments, waste collection companies and landfill management companies.

Based on these strategic orientations we are providing below list of annexes and objectives that remain part of Cap stone project and set the objectives and implementation measures in this action plan.

It is obvious that local governments have a key role in this field, but also it is very obvious that an essential role have donors, civil society and business community. We have to admit that we are not satisfied with current waste management system.

3.2. Objectives of the action plan The main focus for this action plan will be for the short and medium term commitments but will also identify longer-term commitments where possible. This project aims to motivate people living in Prishtina to properly dispose of garbage and pay the garbage collection fee so that the city could be kept clean. Both these desired actions by the city inhabitants are crucial to the successful clean up action and later implementation of the waste management strategy.

Difficulties and problems are evident in all system’s components as in waste collection, selection, storage, and that these problems are evident in management process of all types of wastes as: household waste, industrial waste, hazardous waste etc (Field, Barry C. and Martha K. Field, 2002). 3.1.

Current situation and needs

In the Municipality of Pristina the ‘Pastrimi’ Co is responsible for garbage collection and they provide as well secondary activities that currently are cleaning of streets and snow removal. Cleaning activities are based on secondary service contracts with municipality. Most service contracts are public tenders and collected revenues are substantial. The situation in the Municipality of Prishtina is considered bit more favourable while almost 60% of inhabitants are covered with services on garbage collection. Below there is presented data about yearly amount of garbage disposal per capita to the landfills for the region of Prishtina and other regions as well.

3.3. Type of Waste Generated in the Municipality of Prishtina The current situation is caused by a number of factors. These range from a lack of a functioning waste collection service, through to the simple but devastating fact that for many local residents the canals and river systems have been, and will always be, the most simple and effective means by which to dispose of their waste. Another favored method of disposing of waste, which is particularly concerning, is through burning. Throughout the project area we can observe the remnants of, or still smoldering, bonfires. All forms of waste are disposed of this way, glass, metal cans, household waste and plastic bottles (SOK; 2008).

This amount for the region of Prishtina is about 332 kg, whilst in other parts it is around 95 kg (MESP 2010). 178

IFAC SWIIS 2013 June 6-8, 2013. Prishtina, Kosovo

Obviously plastics will give off toxic fumes when burnt adding further to the dangers to health. Municipal waste is being managed by the Municipal authorities through regional public company ‘‘Pastrimi’’. The municipal waste collected is transported from various locations in the municipality and is being disposed at the Mirash Landfill Site. The municipal waste includes domestic, commercial, construction and non-hazardous industrial waste as well as carcasses and animal waste. The total amount of municipal waste in Kosovo for 2007 is a little more than 300 000 tonnes. In Kosovo the door to door collection is just above 50 %. However if you consider Prishtinë and surroundings and the rest of Kosovo the door to door collection is more dominant in the rest of Kosovo.

Fig.3. Analysis of waste fractions in Prishtina Tab. 3. Targets for waste minimization and recycling (Note: assumes an annual growth of 1% waste in Prishtina).

Tab.2. Amounts of municipal waste collected in Prishtina and Kosovo 2010/12 per capita (kg/capita).


Total Waste




(1000 tonnes)



Composting (T)





182 x 1%


(182X1%) 1%
















Prish tina











1 600







2 100





ion Rest

In Kosovo the municipal waste was 157 kg per person in 2007 but it differs very much regionally. In Prishtina and surroundings it was 0.9 kg per person/day. For the rest of Kosovo it was much less. The results are shown in charts and figures above (Annual Performance Report 5,6) 4.


This Research project proposes the following new programs for Municipality of Prishtina: Waste reduction: Undertake an extensive public education and outreach program to educate residents and businesses on how to reduce waste at the source and to expand opportunities for reuse.


This project sets out guidelines for municipality action and describes the ways in which waste management can be improved. The aim of the action plan is to reduce the negative impact on the environment that is caused by waste throughout its life-span, from production to disposal, via recycling, reducing and reusing of waste. This approach means that every item of waste is seen not only as a source of pollution to be reduced, but also as a potential resource to be exploited.

Recyclable materials: Maintain and expand the existing network of transfer stations and recycling centres in Municipality of Prishtina: This Recycling-Based Waste Management part of this Research Project has to be prepared to lay the foundation for building midterm sustainability for waste reduction and recycling programs in Prishtina Municipality.

These objectives are integrated into the approach based on environmental impact and on the life-cycle of resources. According to this below are settled future Municipal Targets for waste minimization and recycling.

With this Action Plan as a starting point, hopefully we can set Prishtina Municipality as a model of how to transition from waste management practices that emphasize disposal to one that emphasizes reducing both the volume and toxicity of waste.


IFAC SWIIS 2013 June 6-8, 2013. Prishtina, Kosovo

Despite all this the project aim is to encourage the municipality working in directions of minimization and recycling processes, as well improving the human capacities and modernizing the equipment with final aim – offering better services to the citizens of Prishtina municipality and keep the environmental conditions clean in the area

Undertake wide scale public education efforts: Public education is the underpinnings of any successful waste management program. These educational efforts should be diverse, widespread, and on-going. Work in partnership with the private sector: In all likelihood, the private sector will play a significant role in a new waste management system. Local governments should work closely with the private sector to share their vision on waste management for the county and how the private sector can play a role in achieving that vision.

REFERENCES Brown, M.L., 2002, How Waste Management is Affected by Socio-economic Factors. Bernstein, Janis. 2004. “Toolkit: Social assessment and Public Participation in Municipal solid Waste Management.” Urban Environment Thematic Group. Cointreau S. J. 1994. “Private Sector Participation in Municipal Solid Waste Services in Developing Countries, Vol. I. The Formal Sector.” Urban Management Programme, World Bank. DaBreo, S. 2003. Private Sector in Waste Management. Paper presented at The Symposium on Solid Waste Management in the OECS: Past Present and Future. Evans, E. 2002. “Measuring Success in Public Participation”. International Association for Public Participation Conference Paper Headley, J. 1998. Article entitled: “An overview of Solid Waste management in Barbados”in text book entitled Solid Waste Management: critical issues for Developing Countries, edited by Thomas-Hope E. Published by Canoe Press, UWI. Inter-American Development Bank. 2002. Solid Waste Management Project-Belize (Profile 11). Mc Garity, T. 2005. Article entitled “Public Participation in risk Regulation”, published on the internet “Not Greenland”, “Full turn-out at Alleyne”, “Missing Payne angers residents” and “Liz will be back” P1. Nation Newspaper, 1995, February 6. Olexa, M., L. D’Isernia, L. Minton, D. Miller and S, Corbett. 2005. “ Field, Barry C. and Martha K. Field, 2002, Environmental Economics and Introduction. Scheinberg, Anne, 2004, Integrated Sustainable Waste Management-the Concept, WASTE, the Netherlands. Kosovo environmental protection Agency Reports (2007/2008/2009) Eptisa Study on Waste survey 2007/2008 Questionnaire on municipal waste management; SOK; 2008 MESP,Kosovo Environmental Action Plan 2010-2020, 2010 REC, 2006,State of Environment Report 2009/2010- KEPA 2008, Kosovo Environmental Strategy, MESP 2003 Annual Performance Report 2007-2010, WWRO, 2010 Waste Law (nr. 02/L-30)

Consider job creation impacts of recycling: On a per-ton basis, sorting and processing recyclables alone sustain ten times more jobs than land filling or incineration. Towns should consider the job creation impacts of recycling and waste reduction efforts when implementing a new recycling-based waste management system 5.


The management of Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) in Prishtina municipality still has many problems. The current regulation system is not perfect and the existing management system and the collection facilities do not fit the present requirements. Municipal solid wastes are still collected without separation at the source, treatment facilities are limited and the collected wastes are mostly dumped haphazardly in open areas. Government, NGOs, and private sectors are working hard in this field but still much needs to be done. The main management strategies to remedy this should include amendment of current laws and regulations, improve current management systems and introduce classified collections. The effective implementation of these strategies will help to solve the environmental pollution problems to a large extent. It is also important to observe that there are possibilities for research implementation and collaboration among developing countries having similar climatic and solid waste characteristics. The solid waste disposal depends on dumping on land and land filling in abandoned stone quarries. The public also burns, buries their garbage and throws the garbage into drainages and water bodies. Recycling of waste occurs but is very minimal. Current waste management practices are unable to keep pace with the waste generation rate. In the process of integration: collection of materials for recycling and composting must be linked with the available markets for these materials; waste collection and handling must also be integrated with anaerobic treatment, processing and disposal activities; the biological treatment facility, collection, recycling and composting programs must be brought in close co-operation with the management authorities, the public and private investors.