1286 custom, and custom can unmake as well as make, especially if the practice be a bad one. The clergyman may wear his academical cap, or a skull cap...

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1286 custom, and custom can unmake as well as make, especially if the practice be a bad one. The clergyman may wear his academical cap, or a skull cap, the ltomish priest his biretta, while other ministers aiopt some covering. Laymen, in their turn, have very recently adopted a custom which may be followed with advantage. It is to retain the hat, or usual head covering, raising it at the end of each prayer. This has the double advantage of showing reverence to the dead and to the solemn service which is being read, and a due regard to health, the most precious gift which man can have.

Doubs. It has a population of 56,511 inhabitants, and its newly formed sanitary bureau will resemble in most particulars the similar institutions that already exist in


LAVATORIES IN RAILWAY TRAINS. FOOLLOwINGthe method, if not the example, of the Midland Railway Company, the directors of the Great Western

Railway have decided to provide lavatories in connexion with all classes in their long distance trains. The travelling public will hail this change with satisfaction, and will hopefully expect its introduction on the other great lines of traffic. It is recommended alike by considerations of comfort and of health. To all it ensures at least a distinct gain in convenience, while for many sick and weak persons who may have to travel by rail it signifies the satisfaction of Let us now only repeat a former caution, a crying need. and impress the necessity of preserving by due care and cleanliness on the part of passengers and by frequent official supervision all the wholesome amenity which belongs to this useful arrangement.

the towns of Havre, Reims, Amiens, Pau, Saint-Etienne, Dr. Daudin, chief physician of the Nancy, Grenoble, &c. has been appointed director of the departmental asylums, M. with Jeannot, director of the town watersanitary bureau, as assistant and works, manager of the administrative portion of the business. The second town is Lyons, and there a very severe competition was organised for the selection of the chief of the sanitary bureau ; so severe, indeed, that only one candidate has so far ventured to present him. self. The competition included a practical examination in bacteriology. The water of the Saone was to be analysed chemically, and its living organisms described. For this purpose three specimens of the water must be examined, the first taken before the river reaches Lyons, the second as it passes through the town, and the third after it has left Lyons. Two months are allowed to the candidates to make these investigations. The tendency in France to give too much prominence to mere theoretical rather than practical questions seems, in this instance, indicated by the paucity of candidates applying for the important post offered. This is unfortunate, though perhaps it does not matter much for the moment, as these sanitary offices possess. but few powers, and are of more use as educational institutions than as active centres of sanitary police. THE ELECTRIC LIGHT.

IT is currently reported that Her Majesty the Queen has THE HOSPITAL ABUSE QUESTION AT the use of the electric light in her private discontinued LIVERPOOL. on the ground that it is injurious to the eyes. AN important report has been issued by a committee, apartments, We are inclined to believe that this is founded on some miaappointed to consider the above question, on the following apprehension, for when properly protected by opal glass or points: 1. To decide on the best means of checking the by shades, the electric light can be toned down to any desired abuse of public medical charities. 2. To consider what extent, and it certainly possesses many advantages over gas. classes shall be eligible for charitable relief. 3. To consider It is more easily lighted and extinguished, less dangerous, how the ineligible classes shall be provided with eflicient more cleanly, free from odour, gives off little heat, does not medical treatment. 4. To make suggestions regarding the the air, is quite as steady, and, EO far as we can see, has spoil general working of the medical charities Briefly the one drawback-that, namely, of being more expensive. committee advises as follows : Careful inquiry into the circumstances of out-patients and the rejection a9 ineligible of those who are in receipt of 20s. a week THE WORKING OF THE LUNACY ACT, 1890. for single man or woman ; 25s. a week for man and wife, NUMEROUS compJaints reach us on the subject of the plrs Is. per week for each child under fourteen; no unsatisfactory and inefficient means supplied for the proper in-patient limit, a uniform system of hospital accounts, carrying out of the provisionsof the New Lunacy Act. The and the establishment of a central committee to advise onI number of special justices appointed under the Act is the administration of medical charities. There is one other totally inadequate to the requirements, and thereby a cruel signihcant piece of negative advice. They decide not to wrong is frequently found to be inflicted upon the unrecommend the interposition of a new institution between fortunate lunatics. The following is a case in point. Before hospitals and medical practitioners, because it is found the Droitwich Board of Guardians last week a Mrs. Coxell that qualified practitioners give their services at rates within attended to make a complaint in regard to the case of a the reach of those ineligible for charitable relief. The young woman named Narcisse Warren, who, she said, was advocates of provident dispensaries will regret this finding raving mad. " of the Liverpool Committee on the ground that a small, The medical ouicer, Mr. Coombs, was fetched to her on a for is methodical medical payment Monday, and made an order that she should be removed to systematic, purposes good habit, and likely to give the medical man more re- the lunatic asylum. Mr. Willetts, the relieving officer, muneration than a casual system. There is no doubt that received that order; but it had not been carried out, and Mrs. Coxell now complained ihat was in a the provident dispensary is at present unpopular with the that it took two men to hold her down, condition, dangerous profession, and suspected of abuses similar to those which and that she had not had a particle of food in her mouth discredit the out-patient hospital system. It does not for three days. Mr. Willetts admitted that the statement follow that it cannot be cleared of such suspicions by sound made by Mrs. Coxell was correct, and he was sorry the delay in removing the patient should have arisen, but it rules. wa" no fault of his. Under the New Lunacy Act only certain magistrates appointed by quarter sessions were SANITARY BUREAUX IN FRANCE. authoriserl to sign ordms for the removal of lunatics. As TIIE organisation of sanitary services in France is soon as he received information of this matter on he went to Worcester, to the nearest gradually progressing. Eleven of the more important Monday afternoon who was qualified, Colonel Bellers. He towns had created municipal bureaux of hygiene, and now magistrateand could not attend to the matter. was ill He two more towns may be added to this list. The first is (the speaker) next went to Mr. Hill’s, in Worcester, and Colonel Middlemore’s at Hallow, who were also Besancon, the principal town of the Department of



the patient